Turkeys: Differential gene expression is nutrient-dependent

Happy Thanksgiving from folks at  “The Scientist” who thought it was cute to again note comments from Nov 1, about a nutrient source some of us may consume today, Nov 28.

The Ultimate Wingman

Differential gene expression between dominant and subordinate male turkeys could help evolutionary biologists deconstruct the roots of sexual dimorphism.

By Tracy Vence | November 1, 2013

Excerpt: “This is a great example of how differences among individuals are not exclusively determined by differences in DNA sequence,” says Alan Krakauer, a biologist at the University of California, Davis, who was not involved in the work. “Behavior and the social environment are probably responsible for the transcriptome differences they found. It’s not all ‘inside, out’—there’s a lot of feedback between what’s going on outside the organism and what’s going on under the skin.”

My comment: At the evolutionary advent of sexual reproduction in yeasts, increased nutrient uptake determines  “male” morphogenesis and the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. See for example: Signaling Crosstalk: Integrating Nutrient Availability and Sex and our 1996 review for information on the molecular epigenetics of sexual orientation and sex differences in behavior.

Molecular epigenetics” Yet another kind of epigenetic imprinting occurs in species as diverse as yeast, Drosophila, mice, and humans and is based upon small DNA-binding proteins called “chromo domain” proteins, e.g., polycomb. These proteins affect chromatin structure, often in telomeric regions, and thereby affect transcription and silencing of various genes…. Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans… That similar proteins perform functions in humans suggests the possibility that some human sex differences may arise from alternative splicings of otherwise identical genes.”

The molecular mechanisms of sex determination via nutrient-dependent alternative splicings do not change in species from microbes to man, which means that sexual dimorphism is also nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled (See Bird odour predicts reproductive success) in turkeys.

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society