The key to science: experimental evidence

 

If it disagrees with the experiment, it’s wrong! — Richard Feynman (1964)

Two different experiments are among others from the Vosshall lab that show the theory of evolution is wrong.

1) This experiment links induced mutations in olfactory receptor genes to the inability to find a source of nutrients. orco mutant mosquitoes lose strong preference for humans and are not repelled by volatile DEET

The source is a human, and the presence of humans is a recent addition to the ecological variation associated with the experience-dependent de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in experiment 2 (below).

2) This experiment links ecological variation to nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions and the experience-dependent de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes. Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor.

See the text from Figure 3: “Dots represent amino acid differences with respect to the genome reference, not an inferred ancestor.”

Although reported in terms that include an evolutionary inference, there is no inferred ancestor. That is probably because no experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect infers that there ever was a last universal common ancestor. That fact was addressed in the context of how amino acid substitutions are linked via the laws of physics and the chemistry of protein folding to the molecular epigenetics of biologically-based cause and effect in species from microbes to man.

See, A universal trend of amino acid gain and loss in protein evolution

“We cannot conceive of a global external factor that could cause, during this time, parallel evolution of amino acid compositions of proteins in 15 diverse taxa that represent all three domains of life and span a wide range of lifestyles and environments. Thus, currently, the most plausible hypothesis is that we are observing a universal, intrinsic trend that emerged before the last universal common ancestor of all extant organisms.”

The Vosshall lab experiments establish a the existence of a metabolic link from the epigenetic landscape to the nutrient physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man. The metabolic link is obviously  receptor mediated.

Mutations in olfactory receptors perturb all aspects of biodiversity that might otherwise link them to increasing organismal complexity via evolution. For example, organisms that cannot find food and metabolize it cannot fuel the diversity of  increasingly complex genetic networks. First, the organisms must have metabolic networks that link their receptor-mediated nutrient-uptake to their genetically predisposed receptor-mediated behaviors.

The need to link metabolic networks to genetic networks via amino acid substitutions has been exemplified in mosquitoes. However, another group established the obvious connection from the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in insects to nutrient uptake in mammals. Behavioral Responses to Mammalian Blood Odor and a Blood Odor Component in Four Species of Large Carnivores  “The results of the present study demonstrate that a single blood odor component can be as efficient in eliciting behavioral responses in large carnivores…”

Apparently, there are differences in the nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions of blood cells that link them via epigenetically-effected RNA-mediated events to detectable differences in cell type differentiation in insects and mammals.  Detection of those differences appears to involve the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes and to exclude mutations. Thus, the 1964 Feynman video “The key to science” can be linked from physics to the chemistry of protein folding and to molecular biology by what Dobzhansky wrote in 1964. “Ingram and others found that hemoglobin S differs from A in the substitution of just a single amino acid, valine in place of glutamic acid in the beta chain of the hemoglobin molecule.”

This historical link also includes an error. In 1964, Dobzhansky also wrote “Self-reproduction plus mutation make possible natural selection. Natural selection makes possible evolution.” However, in 1973, Dobzhansky wrote: “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.”  The Vosshall lab’s experimental evidence shows that nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions link the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes to detectable differences in odor produced by insects and mammals. So does all other experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect that links physics to the chemistry of protein folding. See for review:

Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors.

Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.

No experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect links mutations to increasing organismal complexity. Evolutionary theorists and human ethologists should quit claiming that evidence from population genetics has anything to do with “The key to science.” Evidence from population genetics is the pseudoscientific nonsense the Vosshall lab has exposed for what it has always been.

See also: Amino Acid Residues Contributing to Function of the Heteromeric Insect Olfactory Receptor Complex

Excerpt: “…the biophysical properties of the channel vary according to subunit composition, even with highly similar proteins such as BmOr-1-Orco and BmOr-3-Orco. Second, because ligand-selective Or sequences within and between insect species are extremely divergent, the primary amino acid sequence of the ion-conducting pore is likely to differ according to the subunit composition of the Or-Orco complex.’

My comment: Ecological adaptations are bio-physically constrained and so is the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes. Pattern recognition is also a key to science. It’s a key that has gone missing from this claim: “…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world.”

Similarly, in a book review of ‘The Meaning of Human Existence’ by Edward O. Wilson, pattern recognition is also missing.

We read:

Excerpt 1) “…the scientific view that humans have evolved, along with millions of other species, from earlier life forms, entirely by natural processes…”

Excerpt 2) “…roughly two-thirds of Americans reject this view of evolution, which undergirds all of modern medicine and the life sciences.”

RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated events link nutrient-dependent thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation in metabolic networks. The metabolic networks link amino acid substitutions to protein folding that stabilizes DNA in the organized genetic networks of all cell types of all individuals of all species.

What is currently known about the laws of physics; the chemistry of protein folding; and the conserved molecular mechanisms of biology links species from microbes to man via the conserved molecular mechanisms of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation.

The epigenetic landscape is linked to the physical landscape of organized DNA via nutrient uptake and the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction. That fact “undergirds all of modern medicine and the life sciences”. EO Wilson obviously needs a “fact-checker.” He’s an expert on ants who has somehow failed to realize their behavior is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.

Others who want information on biological facts that can readily be compared to the pseudoscientific nonsense of evolutionary theory can read anything written in the past decade about pharmacogenomics or nutrigenomics (i.e., nutritional epigenetics).

Physics, chemistry, and biology are linked to the meaning of human existence via the de novo creation of receptors, which links the de novo creation of genes to our ability to find food and reproduce. That is what the nutrient-dependent de novo creation of new genes does in all species. Creation links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA via nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions. For comparison, the “…view that humans have evolved, along with millions of other species, from earlier life forms, entirely by natural processes…” has never been supported by scientific facts, which require experimental evidence.

If you grasp nothing else that’s been learned about biologically-based cause and effect during the past 50 years, you probably can still understand this, so I reiterate: If it disagrees with the experiment, it’s wrong! — Richard Feynman (1964)

Indeed, if it’s social science, it’s pseudoscience. Richard Feynman and Pseudoscience

 

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society