The anti-entropic force of “Nature”

Exploring the Epigenome

A National Institutes of Health-funded consortium publishes 111 reference maps of DNA and histone marks.

By Jenny Rood | February 18, 2015


“All our cells have a copy of the same book, but they’re all reading different chapters, bookmarking different pages, and highlighting different paragraphs and words.” These chemical bookmarks, such as methylation and acetylation, help control which genes are transcribed into RNA and expressed in a given cell type, thus aiding the maintenance of a particular cell’s identity.

My comment: Study coauthor Manolis Kellis may be the first to metaphorically explain nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation and cell type differentiation in terms that non-scientists can understand. See also: Life is physics and chemistry and communication and Top-down causation: an integrating theme within and across the sciences? If all your bookmarks are in the texts from a specific discipline or area of expertise, you’re less likely to understand the importance of learning how ‘chemical bookmarks’ linked to mutations may lead to the failure of particular cell types to maintain their RNA-mediated identity.

For example, others have engineered genetically modified E. coli with a synthesized amino acid substitution that probably ensures the stability of DNA in its organized genome. See: Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design. Many theorists are only familiar with works by those who claim to have “bottled evolution.” See, for example: The Man Who Bottled Evolution. Lenski’s experiments are examples of how ecological variation in the food supply lead to ecological adaptations via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man.

Now that others have brought forward the topic of how gene transcription and RNA are linked to the maintenance of a particular cell’s identity, it may be easier for others to grasp the fact that cell type identity is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.

Can anyone else help to explain how RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man?

That explanation would help to rid serious scientists of claims that mutations somehow lead from entropic elasticity to anti-entropic stability. The stability is obviously due to the fixation of the amino acid substitutions in the context of the physiology of nutrient-dependent species-specific reproduction. That explanation of anti-entropic stability might also help alleviate fears that genetically modified organisms could lead to the death of us all.

The alternative to explanations of anti-entropic stability is to change Gregor Mendel’s century-old “law of segregation” and/or add more laws to the second law of thermodynamics in attempts to explain transmission ratio distortion (TRD).

Distortion links nutrient-dependent fixation of favored alleles from plants to animals via the biophysically constrained chemistry of RNA-mediated protein folding and the physiology of reproduction.

Facts about nutrient-dependent TRD could be compared to theories about the role that constraint-breaking mutations play in the evolution of biodiversity. See for example: Mutation-Driven Evolution “…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world.” (p. 199)

Obviously, mutations contribute to transmission rate distortion (TRD). The question arises, how could they contribute to entropic elasticity and anti-entropic stability. Mutations are linked from perturbed protein folding to physiopathology, not to the physiology of reproduction that is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.

About James V. Kohl 1307 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society