Summary: In two studies of human pheromones we linked a mixture of androsterone and androstenol to increased flirtatious behavior and reports of increased attraction to the male wearing the mixture. This blog posts explains the reason for the use of those two chemicals in the context of what is currently known to serious scientists about cell type differentiation in all living genera.
Nothing published by serious scientists since The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality (1995/2002) has failed to confirm this fact:
Everything published by serious scientists has confirmed that learning and memory are epigenetically linked to the physiology of reproduction via changes in the microRNA/messenger RNA balance. For a review of biologically-based RNA-mediated cell type differentiation see the molecular epigenetics section of From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior.
The paper describes how monomeric Orb2 represses while oligomeric or prion-like Orb2 activates a crucial step in the complex cellular process that leads to protein synthesis. During this crucial step, messenger RNA (mRNA), which is a RNA copy of a gene’s recipe for a protein, is translated by the cell’s ribosome into the sequence of amino acids that will make up a newly synthesized protein.”
My comment: This paper can be viewed in the context of a detailed explanation that links nutrient energy-dependent changes in base pairs to RNA-mediated learning and memory. Epigenetically-effected learning and memory link the transgenerational inheritance of morphological and behavioral phenotypes via the effects of pheromones on the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to humans.
The sequence of nutrient-dependent amino acids that make up newly synthesized proteins is determined in the context of thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis AND degradation. The nutrient-dependent cycles must lead to successful reproduction via fixation of the amino acid substitutions in the context of protein folding chemistry in organized genomes. Viruses perturb protein folding by stealing the nutrient energy from cells and using it for viral replication, which links the accumulation of viral microRNAs to all pathology. Supercoiled DNA in organized genomes links microRNAs and cell adhesion proteins that protect all living genera from virus-driven entropy.
That fact is now well known to all serious scientists.
See for example:
This atoms to ecosystems model of ecological adaptations links nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects on base pairs and amino acid substitutions to pheromone-controlled changes in the microRNA / messenger RNA balance and chromosomal rearrangements. The nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes are required for the thermodynamic regulation of intracellular signaling, which enables biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent protein folding; experience-dependent receptor-mediated behaviors, and organism-level thermoregulation in ever-changing ecological niches and social niches. Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction are manifested in increasing organismal complexity in species from microbes to man. Species diversity is a biologically-based nutrient-dependent morphological fact and species-specific pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The reciprocal relationships of species-typical nutrient-dependent morphological and behavioral diversity are enabled by pheromone-controlled reproduction. Ecological variations and biophysically constrained natural selection of nutrients cause the behaviors that enable ecological adaptations. Species diversity is ecologically validated proof-of-concept. Ideas from population genetics, which exclude ecological factors, are integrated with an experimental evidence-based approach that establishes what is currently known. This is known: Olfactory/pheromonal input links food odors and social odors from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man during their development.
Sequencing both microRNA and mRNA enabled us to identify changes on the microRNA level, and also to investigate what is happening to gene expression at the mRNA level, to understand which pathways are activated or downregulated….
My comment: This link from the microRNA/mRNA balance to healthy longevity for comparison to virus-driven pathology may come as a surprise to evolutionary theorists and theoretical physicists who have no ideas about how biologically-based cause and effect MUST be linked from atoms to ecosystems.
For an example of ignorance touted by biologically uninformed theorists, see: Transgenerational epigenetic programming with stress and microRNA from a blog post on a site that claims to be a “…curation of recent publicly funded research, mainly neuroscience, with a POV often relating principles of Dr. Arthur Janov’s Primal Therapy.”
Excerpt: Although the term “transgenerational” was used in the study’s title, abstract, and elsewhere, the researchers didn’t demonstrate that the epigenetic effects were “transgenerational.” Per the definition in A review of epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of reproductive disease…
My comment: Only biologically uninformed science idiots continue to claim that proof of biologically-based cause and effect must be placed into the context of definitions. Similarly, only biologically uninformed science idiots cite works by Arthur Janov.
See also the author’s copy of: Anoxia: the Cause; and Primal Scream Therapy: the Cure-all. Book Review of Arthur Janov’s: The Biology of Love New York: Prometheus, 2000, 364 pages.
Lack of oxygen at birth equates with lack of love, and womb trauma may be linked to some kinds of cancer, according to Janov, who also admits that his writing “does not follow prevailing psychological theories” (p. 187). Anoxia is linked to tobacco addiction later in life. Rebirthers liberate themselves during Primal Therapy. “Patients reliving a birth sequence in my sessions have even shown forceps marks on the forehead” (p. 233). What? Psychological trauma physically manifest? This is an incredible phenomenon that should be documented on film. Men’s fixation with women’s breasts may be an attempt to recuperate lost oxytocin supplies from infancy. Being unwanted may make children more vulnerable to schizophrenia.
My comment: Appeals to include common sense in the context of the claims Janov, and others like him, make have been met with antagonism that extends across disciplines. Instead, Luis Villarreal and Larry Young have linked viruses to the evolution of prairie vole monogamy and human heterosexual love. See: VIRUS EVOLUTION ( AMAZING DOCUMENTARY)
See for comparison: Structural diversity of supercoiled DNA and the brief video representation of everything known to serious scientists about biophysically constrained RNA-mediated cell type differentiation. This parody links atoms to ecosystems across generations to all biodiversity via nutrient energy-dependent base pair changes. All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody)
…no differences were seen in the proteins that wrap up DNA, there were variations between the participants’ small RNAs (for which the function is not yet determined) as well as methylation of genes associated with brain development and appetite.
My comment: The dynamic structure of functional DNA is perturbed by viruses. For example: The major antigenic changes of the influenza virus are primarily caused by a single amino acid near the receptor binding site.
Dobzhansky (1973) linked a single amino acid substitution from differences in the cell types of humans and chimpanzees to differences in the cell types of gorillas. Neo-Darwinian theorists ignored this fact: “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla” (p. 127).
See also: How Do Egg Yolks Become Chickens? When food is digested and broken down to its basic amino acids the various amino acids are then rearranged in a certain sequence to form cells that make up the various tissues and organs. What sequence these amino acids come together in is determined by the sequence of the molecules in DNA.
For the across-species link from insect pheromones to human pheromones that epigenetically effect hormones that affect human behavior see:
Excerpt: We have made a number of foundational discoveries in this system. At the level of the sensory receptors, we recently found that the large majority of the neuronal activity triggered by a natural stimulus—female mouse urine—is due to sulfated compounds, particularly sulfated steroids. This observation implies that a primary purpose of this sensory system is to detect information about physiological state. This discovery follows on our older work elucidating the core elements of the signal transduction cascade for converting chemical information into electrical activity.
We propose that the ability to detect and measure concentrations of steroid metabolites in urine confers direct knowledge about the sex and physiological status of the donor. Although socially relevant cues have long been known to be detected by vomeronasal neurons (Dulac and Torello, 2003; Halpern and Martı´nez-Marcos, 2003), the connection to particular ligands has been elusive. Because of their role in controlling physiology, steroids and their metabolites may represent an “honest” signal (Zahavi, 1975; Guilford, 1995), one that cannot be readily altered to achieve reproductive advantages.
My comment: Sulfated compounds, particularly sulfated steroids, were linked to human sexual orientation in Androsterone-etiocholanolone ratios in male homosexuals and pheromones were linked to sexual orientation in yeasts in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).
My comment: In our studies of human pheromones we linked a mixture of androsterone and androstenol to increased flirtatious behavior and reports of increased attraction to the male wearing the mixture.
Together with the identification of receptors, the identificationof VSN ligands establishes a molecular foundation for understanding how sensory inputs are used in recognition and behavior.
This was reported as: Scientists sniff out female mouse scents that make males frisky
…a discovery that shines a spotlight on how mouse pheromones control behavior.
My comment: Evolutionary theorists seem increasingly reluctant to accept the fact that pheromones also affect human behavior. But the facts remain. In all vertebrates, for example, Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction and “Indications that GnRH peptide plays an important role in the control of sexual behaviors suggest that pheromone effects on these behaviors might also involve GnRH neurons (p. 683).”
Suggestions that link the conserved molecular mechanisms of nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in all living genera can be compared to the suggestion “…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world (p. 199).” — Mutation-Driven Evolution
Suggestions that the “binding problem” of sexual orientation was not resolved by the claims we first made in The Scent of Eros: Mysteries of Odor in Human Sexuality, can also be viewed in the context of these claims from Gay, Straight, and the Reason Why: The Science of Sexual Orientation
(p. 210) “This model is attractive in that it solves the “binding problem” of sexual attraction. By that I mean the problem of why all the different features of men or women (visual appearance and feel of face, body, and genitals; voice quality, smell; personality and behavior, etc.) attract people as a more or less coherent package representing one sex, rather than as an arbitrary collage of male and female characteristics. If all these characteristics come to be attractive because they were experienced in association with a male- or female-specific pheromone, then they will naturally go together even in the absence of complex genetically coded instructions.”
(p. 210 – 211) “Still, even in fruit flies, other sensory input besides pheromones — acoustic, tactile, and visual stimuli — play a role in sexual attraction, and sex specific responses to these stimuli appear to be innate rather than learned by association [36.]. We simply don’t know where the boundary between prespecified attraction and learned association lie in our own species, nor do we have compelling evidence for the primacy of one sense over another.”
See also: Is quantum physics behind your brain’s ability to think? (subscription required)
Does the brain use quantum mechanics? That’s a perfectly legitimate question,” says Fisher. On one level, he is right – and the answer is yes. The brain is composed of atoms, and atoms follow the laws of quantum physics. But Fisher is really asking whether the strange properties of quantum objects – being in two places at once, seeming to instantly influence each other over distance and so on – could explain still-perplexing aspects of human cognition.
See also: RNA-mediated.com
A Message From J.V.Kohl:
Here you will find information that links physics, chemistry, and molecular epigenetics via RNA-mediated events such as the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes in order to encourage a public discussion of a paradigm shift.
When it becomes obvious to you why neo-Darwinian theorists and theoretical physicists may continue to tout their pseudoscientific nonsense for at least a few more years, tell your friends to help stop them and begin to help others who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease by learning about how RNA-mediated cell type differentiation occurs.