Stress-induced microRNA changes

on 2/27/14 at 3:25 pm I submitted this excerpt for posting to the ISHE’s human ethology yahoo group moderated by Jay R. Feierman.

Re: MicroRNAs Change after Stressful Events

Press conference presenter Karen Scott, a postdoctoral fellow in the laboratory of John Cryan at University College Cork in Ireland, is also interested in stress sensitivity and stress resistance. Scott described her work tracking molecular changes following a stressful event. Scott measured changes in microRNA (miRNA) levels in the hippocampus of two strains of mice (stress-sensitive BALB/c and stress-resistant C57BL/6J) following 10 days of exposure to the social defeat test. miRNA are tiny snippets of messenger RNA that block or degrade other RNA messages. Following stress, expression of miR-16 — which has been implicated in the development of depression — was elevated in BALB/c mice. Conversely, C57BL/6J showed higher levels of miR-34c. “These studies show that there is a correlation between behavioral and physiological responses to social defeat,” Scott said. However, she noted, future studies will need to explore whether manipulating miRNAs in the brain can alter symptoms of depression. on 2/27/14 at 4:10 pm Feierman posted it to the group with other articles under the header: Inside Science: Scientists Consider New Ways to Diagnose, Treat Depression on 2/27/14 at 8:10 pm, I submitted this  for posting the ISHE’s human ethology yahoo group moderated by Jay R. Feierman.


Diversity Down Below Andrew M. Sugden

Despite a surge of research efforts in recent years, the challenges faced by soil biologists remain daunting. Knowledge of even the basic elements of the biodiversity that is so visible above ground—in particular, species diversity and distribution—remains far more rudimentary where life below the soil surface is concerned. Soil fungi are a case in point. A key component of the soil ecosystem, its global species diversity, has tended to be estimated by various proxies. From a study of the fungi of boreal forest soils in Alaska, Taylor et al. suggest that previous estimates of fungal diversity, which hitherto hovered between 0.5 and 1.5 million, might need to be revised upward. Fungal DNA sequence data from their samples yielded just over 1000 discrete fungal taxa—many more than had been estimated from nonmolecular data. Within the soil, the fungal species communities were found to be highly structured and correlated with abiotic variables such as pH and soil horizon, and with the species composition of the understory plant community. The revealed fungus:plant ratio of 17:1, if reflected globally, would extrapolate to at least 6 million fungal species, suggesting in turn that 98% of fungi have yet to be described—a figure that remains to be corroborated by similarly detailed sampling across a range of other soil ecosystems. Ecol. Monogr. 84, 3 (2014).


Feierman is beginning to realize how the diversity down below is linked via conserved molecular mechanisms from microbes to man via microRNA changes. Of course he could claim that he found the “MicroRNAs Change after Stressful Events” on his own rather than admit he is continuing to thwart my efforts to inform the group . But, even if he lies about where the information is coming from, it has clearly become more important to know how the ecological variants of nutrient stress and social stress epigenetically effect ecological adaptations via microRNAs to prevent more confusion about the representations of “constraint-breaking” mutations. For example, while the epigenetic effects of nutrient stress and social stress can be used to explain species diversity in the context of the molecular epigenetics I have detailed, the overwhelming amount of species diversity below ground and above ground cannot be explained by “constraint-breaking” mutations. Besides, no experimental evidence suggests that constraint-breaking mutations have anything to do with species diversity. As we can surmise from the header “Ecology” in the editor’s choice above, unless ecological factors are considered, conclusions drawn from population genetics make no sense.

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society