Hominid Skull Spurs Radical Rewrite of Human Evolution By Gemma Tarlach October 17, 2013 1:00 pm
Excerpt: “…variations between the skull and those of other early hominids found at the site are no more significant than differences among modern humans, suggesting the fossils represent one species.”
My comment: It is becoming clearer how much impact a nutrient-dependent change in a single base pair can have on adaptive evolution in a human population such as the one that appears to have adaptively evolved in what is now central China during the past ~30,000 years. Subtle differences include changes in hair thickness, skin glands, mammary tissue, and teeth. These changes are due to a single amino acid substitution and they have have been modeled in the mouse. In other species, differences in base pairs and amino acid substitutions like these define the species more accurately than could examination of skulls. Furthermore, the differences are consistent with a model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution that refutes mutation-initiated natural selection. Indeed, the model establishes selection for nutrients as the cause of adaptive evolution, which is controlled by the metabolism of the nutrients to species-specific pheromones.
Pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. For comparison to mutation-driven evolution (i.e., the theory), in my model and in Darwin’s theory, ‘conditions of life’ must be met before natural selection for anything occurs. The conditions of life are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled in species from microbes to man. That is obviously why these skulls are so similar. As the researchers indicated, the organisms represented in the fossil record by these skulls did not mutate to become humans. Subtle changes occurred due to differences in diet — as subtle changes do in every other species on this planet.
The problem for evolutionary theorists is that nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled changes in morphology occur very quickly, as exemplified in the human population in central China, but also in nematodes, insects, frogs, fish, birds, and other mammals as part of an evolutionary continuum of ecological, social, neurogenic and socio-cognitive niche construction (see for review: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model. It will be interesting to see what evolutionary theorists write about this problem, if they do not simply choose to ignore it. In any case, the problem for theorists and philosophers starts with ecological niche construction.
Journal article excerpt [subscription required]: “When seen from the Dmanisi perspective, morphological diversity in the African fossil Homo record around 1.8 Ma probably reflects variation between demes of a single evolving lineage, which is appropriately named H. erectus. The hypothesis of multiple independent lineages (paleospecies) (15, 31) appears less parsimonious, especially in the absence of empirical evidence for adaptation to separate ecological niches.”
My comment: Evidently, our ancestors come from a planet-sized ecological niche. Thus, ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction can now be considered in the context of model organisms from microbes to man. Species diversity is invariably nutrient-dependent because nutrient availability establishes the ecological niche. Subtle differences in the ecological niche can be expected as can the need for subtle alterations in the nutrient-dependent thermodynamics of intercellular signaling and stochastic gene expression that enables morphological adaptations consistent with organism-level thermoregulation.
In all cases of thermodynamically controlled organism-level thermoregulation that is required for adaptive evolution, the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones establishes the social niche in the context of morphologically similar conspecifics. Nutrient availability and pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution then enable neurogenic niche construction exemplified in nematodes. Additional neurogenic niche construction enables socio-cognitive niche construction in eusocial insects, as exemplified in the honeybee model organism. The honeybee model organism links nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled behavior and brain development from invertebrates to vertebrates.
Extension of this model of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution across species should surprise no one. Even the location where skull 5 was found will be only mildly surprising to readers of Greg Bear’s science fiction novels: Darwin’s Radio and Darwin’s Children. His story about the evolution of a new species of human began in Georgia, like this one does. But obviously, Greg Bear was toying with his readers. He had individuals of the new human subspecies from Georgia communicating with pheromones, when it has become perfectly clear that all humans have been communicating with pheromones for many years, just like every other species on the planet.