Sex differences in Alzheimer’s and everything else

Sex and gonadal hormones in mouse models of Alzheimer’s disease: what is relevant to the human condition? Dubal DB, Broestl L, Worden K Biology of Sex Differences 2012, 3:24 (5 November 2012)
Open access PDF
—————————————————————————————————————
Re: My participation in Yahoo groups: evolutionary-psychology; psychiatry-research; cognitiveneuroscienceforum

My comments:

Gender- and stressor-specific microRNA expression in Tribolium castaneum (an insect species) link gene duplication and differences in glucose transport into the cells of a yeast species — via the contribution of microRNAs — to the adaptive evolution of sex differences in the regulation of immune and stress responses by glucose-sensing gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurosecretory neurons from an evolved neurogenic niche of the mammalian brain that is essential to intelligent life and to metabolic control of reproduction.

Mammalian GnRH, for example, controls both the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and HP-adrenal (HPA) axis during the development of sexually dimorphic behaviors, which are linked to sex differences in neurodevelopmental disorders, like autism (years 0-3) and Alzheimer’s (later in life) and to other developmental disorders associated with behavioral deficits.

One of the main duplicated gene families across species from microbes to man are the olfactory receptor proteins, which attests to the fact that “Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000).” –see for review Kohl (2012).

It is unfortunate that the  moderator of several different discussion groups is now on record with his opinionated twice-stated denial that:

1)  “Humans did not evolve from insects: our genetic path does not pass through insects or birds.

2) “There is no “evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans” as insects are not in H.sapeins evolutionary past.”

These misrepresentations of neuroscientifically established fact short-circuit further discussion about adaptive evolution from microbes to man via ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction at a time when the facts might otherwise be taken into full consideration as is required for scientific progress. Instead, we have statistical analyses and theory promoted across all fronts (i.e., in the context of warring factions among researchers and opinionated lay persons).

As the groups’ highly respected and obviously very intelligent moderator: Robert Karl Stonjek has led the way towards scientific progress by providing forums for discussion and an ongoing supply of links to informative articles on diverse topics. How could he have formed and expressed an opinion about the adaptive evolution of human behavior that is contrary to the facts, especially now that I have detailed those facts in my recently published work?

We may never know, as each time I have commented on his opinions, we have learned nothing further about their basis or why he chooses to challenge the facts I have provided to participating discussants. Similarly, we may never know anything more about the consequences of enhanced cell-autonomous glucose metabolism in autism spectrum disorders, Alzheimer’s disease et al.,  and how the metabolism of nutrient chemicals to pheromones controls survival of species from microbes to man, including insects and birds. Clearly, however, some of us know that the logic of gene regulatory networks in adaptive evolution does not skip any species.

About James V. Kohl 1307 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society