The effect on the wings being moved seems to agitate the flies, as revealed by changes in their brain chemistry. Flies exposed to an electric field showed increased levels of octopamine (similar to noradrenaline in humans) which indicates stress and aggression. The flies also showed decreased levels of dopamine, meaning they would be more responsive to external stimuli.
My comment: Electric fields can effect wing movement but the affect on behavior must be linked to changes in hormones. The dopamine response is conditioned to occur in the context of the effects of food odors and pheromones on hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors in insect and mammals.
“The balance of the novel sees Oz gaining acceptance of his data, while world leaders take misguided actions to solve the problem, only to see even worse mammal attacks threaten the existence of man.”
My comment: The physiology and behavior of insects and mammals is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled via RNA-mediated events that link the fixation of amino acid substitutions to the stability of organized genomes during the development of their behavior.
See for an example in humans: Oppositional COMT Val158Met effects on resting state functional connectivity in adolescents and adults and renew your fear of pheromones and your fears associated with the virus-driven changes in their production that could signal the impending death of all who do not evolve (n=0) or ecologically adapt to become a more intelligent species. See also: The Darwin Code.
That a single pheromone is influenced by so many aspects of the somatic state and causes such variation in a male’s attractiveness under field conditions was hitherto unknown and highlights the need to integrate indicator models of sexual selection into pheromone research.
My comment: Cause and effect via nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions was established in:
My comment: A single nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution can be linked across all living genera to the diversity of morphological and behavioral phenotypes by the production of species-specific pheromones in species from microbes to man. However, in all living genera, it is clear that virus-driven perturbed RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry is what may lead to the death of us all.
Excerpt from Kohl (2013) “Animal models are often used to model human physical and mental disorders. The honeybee already serves as a model organism for studying human immunity, disease resistance, allergic reaction, circadian rhythms, antibiotic resistance, the development of the brain and behavior, mental health, longevity, diseases of the X chromosome, learning and memory, as well as conditioned responses to sensory stimuli (Kohl, 2012).”
Visiting male orchid bees scrape up the floral scents using special hairs on their front legs. After spending weeks or months harvesting orchid and other scents, the bees store the scents in their inflated hind legs. Eventually, they use these purloined floral scents as their own sexual attractants.
My comment: This links virus-driven changes in plants to virus-driven changes in honeybees and humans via the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry. That fact has been placed into the context of ridiculous theories in Mutation-Driven Evolution. Fortunately, those ridiculous theories can be compared to what is known to serious scientists in the context of Medical Genetics.
I’d like to know how bees are most attracted to flowers and the most important sensory cues used in recognizing flowers from a distance. We know very little about this subject, especially in nature, outside of the artificial-flower testing arrays used by many modern behaviorists. Bees have thousands of tiny ommatidia, which together make up their compound eyes. Their visual acuity is only about one-sixtieth that of our human eyes.
My comment: I’d like to know why everyone else does not understand the fact that RNA-mediated events that link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in species from microbes to man begin with receptor-mediated events that link food odors and pheromones to the physiology of successful nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction. Does anyone not know that the molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding chemistry extend across all genera?
The role of RNA folding free energy in the evolution of the polymerase genes of the influenza A virus
Current efforts to investigate this adaptation mechanism are mainly focused on characteristic amino acid differences between avian and human genes . In some cases, critical amino acid substitutions have been identified that affect species-specific virulence [7-9].