Excerpt: “Domestication is generally associated with repeated demographic crashes. Yet, mutations that negatively impact genes are not eliminated by selection and can even increase in frequency when populations are small. Domestication thus generally comes at a cost, as deleterious mutations can accumulate in the genome. This had already been shown for rice and dogs. Horses now provide another example of this phenomenon.”
My comment: Serious scientists probably saw this coming. Seventeen months ago, Carl Zimmer wrote: “Others maintain that as random mutations arise, complexity emerges as a side effect, even without natural selection to help it along. Complexity, they say, is not purely the result of millions of years of fine-tuning through natural selection—the process that Richard Dawkins famously dubbed “the blind watchmaker.” To some extent, it just happens.”
Eighteen months ago Masatoshi Nei eliminated natural selection when he told us “…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world.”
Now we’re told that “…mutations that negatively impact genes are not eliminated by selection and can even increase in frequency when populations are small.”
The entirety of neo-Darwinian theory has been turned around and is now represented in the context of deleterious mutations that “just happen’ to lead to the biodiversity exemplified in rice, dogs, and horses. In other words, deleterious mutations lead to evolution of plants and of other mammals. Evolutionary theorists have hit a new high point in the context of touting their pseudoscientific nonsense. It is now portrayed as natural selection for deleterious mutations in plants and animals. Does that mean deleterious mutations are actually beneficial to biological diversity? Does that make sense to anyone who is not biologically uninformed?
Eighteen months ago, I detailed how ecological variation is linked from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man via feedback loops that link nutrient uptake and the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction. Simply put, RNA-mediated cell type differentiation via amino acid substitutions differentiate cell types. The amino acid substitutions stabilize thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation. Parenthetically, that obvious fact about the bio-physically constrained chemistry of protein folding was not detailed in Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model because the target audience was biologists not physicists or chemists.
Two years ago, evolutionary biologists learned that Analysis of 6,515 exomes reveals the recent origin of most human protein-coding variants That was reported as Past 5,000 years prolific for changes to human genome
Excerpt: “Of 1.15 million single-nucleotide variants found among more than 15,000 protein-encoding genes, 73% in arose the past 5,000 years, the researchers report. 164,688 of the variants — roughly 14% — were potentially harmful, and of those, 86% arose in the past 5,000 years. More broadly, the results suggest that humans are carrying around larger numbers of deleterious mutations than they did a few thousand years ago. But this doesn’t mean that humans now are more susceptible to disease, says Akey. Rather, it suggests that most diseases are caused by more than one variant, and that diseases could operate through different genetic pathways and mechanisms in different people.”
My comment: In less than two years, the “Modern Synthesis” has changed to include links from mutations in rice, dogs, and horses to evolution of humans that reportedly also occurred during the past ~5,000 years. That means the most recent report on the evolution of our genetic diversity links it to the same time-frame during which the extant diversity of horses arose due to selective breeding/domestication that enabled the accumulation of mutations. That suggests the accumulation of mutations led to the evolution of biodiversity in horses and humans during the past ~5,000 years, which is also suggested by people who are referred to as Young Earth Creationists.
Young Earth Creationists claim that experimental evidence of biologically-based cause and effect is among the evidence that supports the literal interpretation of the Christian Bible, which includes a Biblical flood. Evidence that phosphorylation led to rapid diversification of biodiversity after the Biblical flood via fixation of amino acids substitutions in the DNA of organized genomes that differentiate the cell types of all individuals of all species via their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction requires that the claims of theorists be supported, or dismissed. Does anyone think that evolutionary theorists will support their claims about horses and human evolution that occurred during the past ~5000 years and also their claims of evolution that supposedly occurred over billions of years as natural selection for beneficial mutations led from microbes to the evolution of man? I think that evolutionary theorists can only continue to attest to the foolishness of their theories.
I am not the only one to notice the lack of scientific support for the theories. See, for examples: Combating Evolution to Fight Disease; RNA and dynamic nuclear organization; Biological imprinting: Some genetic considerations; Biological evolution: Some genetic considerations; Beyond neo-Darwinism—an epigenetic approach to evolution. See also, anything published about epigenetic pharmacology aka pharmacogenomics. It helps others to distinguish between what evolutionary theorists believe can be attributed to mutations and what serious scientists attribute to RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated events.
RNA-mediated events link atoms to ecosystems in the context of biologically-based cause and effect. Epigenetic cause and effect can be linked from hormones to affects on behaviors via olfactory/pheromonal conditioning. Conditioned responses lead to foraging and mate-finding and nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled conditioning of behavior occurs in species from microbes to man. The idea that RNA-mediated events evolved during millions of years seems preposterous give the evidence that horses and humans have ecologically adapted during the past ~5000 years.