We and others have identified eight pillars of beauty: youthfulness, symmetry, averageness, sex-hormone markers, body odour, motion, skin complexion and hair texture. I think this line of research is almost finished. It is no longer useful to just decide that something is more beautiful than something else. The signals of beauty have been identified. The next step is to try to work out what these signals are for. For example, symmetry is thought to reflect stable development and parasite resistance, and body odour is thought to convey information about the immune system. But direct evidence for these connections is weak. Also, specific genes involved in determining attractiveness have yet to be pinpointed.
My comment: There are no questions left to be answered about any “…specific genes involved in determining attractiveness….” All serious scientists know that no specific genes will ever be found. Karl Grammer’s gene-centric claims have received no support from serious scientists during the past 15 years.
More than a decade after publication of our review, which linked epigenetic effects on hormones to affects of the hormones on behavior, co-author Karl Grammer still seems to think specific genes that determine attractiveness may someday be pinpointed. Clearly, he is among the biologically uninformed who may never realize that all links from genes to hormones and behavior are RNA-mediated and manifested in the amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all living genera because fixed amino acid substitutions enable supercoiled DNA to protect organized genomes from virus-driven entropy.
Karl Grammer continues to get funding for research on youthfulness, symmetry, averageness, sex-hormone markers, body odour, motion, skin complexion and hair texture. He is not motivated to focus on research that links sex-hormone markers to body odour and all other aspects of the eight pillars of beauty via RNA-mediated events.
If he were motivated to report accurate representations of biologically-based RNA-mediated cause and effect he would be citing the series of reviews by serious scientists who have detailed cause and effect in the context of atoms to ecosystems models. All those models are based on the details included in our section on molecular epigenetics in our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review article.
My comment: Anyone whose works are funded by the evolution industry, will continue to ignore the claims of serious scientists who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.
Serious scientists have linked microRNAs from receptor methylation to behavior in all living genera via RNA-mediated gene duplication and fixation of RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions in the context of the physiology of reproduction. Fixation of amino acid substitutions links atoms to ecosystems in all living genera at a time when people like Karl Grammer may still be trying to find links from genes to beauty.