Red Queen theory trumped by Black Queen facts

The maintenance of sex: Ronald Fisher meets the Red Queen by David Green and Chris Mason. OPEN ACCESS

BMC Evolutionary Biology 2013, 13:174 doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-174 Published: 21 August 2013

Excerpt:  “Evolution in both populations is primarily through adoption of novel advantageous mutations within a large allele space.”

My comment: It is scientifically unsubstantiated statements like the one above that should be eliminated from consideration in the study design to also eliminate meaningful interpretation of meaningless results. The results are meaningless due to the bias incorporated into the study design. You simply cannot start with a theory that involves  uncontrolled “mutations” and arrive at a model unless somewhere along the way you incorporate biological facts in the context of evolution. Touting the primacy of “adoption of novel advantageous mutations” when that primacy has never been scientifically established enables only a “garbage in” approach that must lead to “garbage out” conclusions.

For contrast, “…the Black Queen Hypothesis offers a new way of looking at complicated, inter-dependent communities of microorganisms.” Adaptive evolution, which includes the advent of sexual reproduction in yeasts, is nutrient-dependent (Kondrashov, 2012) and pheromone-controlled (Weissman and Singer, 1991; Oliva, 2002). There’s a model for that! It can be compared to mutation-driven evolution, but it has not been.

Obviously, however,  the emergence of males requires both morphogenesis and signals that convey “maleness” to a potential mate.  The morphogenesis and sex differences in species-specific pheromones are nutrient-dependent. Pheromones control reproduction, and thus they control adaptive evolution.  Evolution simply cannot occur via  “adoption of novel advantageous mutations” because adoption requires selection and there is no model for selection of mutations that enable adaptive evolution.

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society