Excerpt: “An organism’s phenotype (behaviour) can be the product of the genes expressed in another organism”
My comment: If anyone tried to explain how mutations caused adaptive evolution, this example of across-species cause and effect would probably refute what I think is a ridiculous theory. However, until someone tries to explain how mutations cause adaptive evolution, most people may be more comfortable with theory than with facts that attest to Darwin’s “Conditions of Existence” and the role pheromones play in “Natural Selection” for phenotype expressed as differences in behavior.
Excerpt: “Our results confirm that parasitism by a parasitoid wasp can lead to behavioural modifications in an aphid host.”
My comment: Parasitism leads to behavioral modifications across species that interactively alter reproductive fitness. See also: Animal Mind Control for details on how the complex systems biology of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled behavior is exemplified in the synergy of interactions among species from insects to humans.