Professor Perdita Barran, of the University of Manchester, aims to identify differences in chemicals present on the skin surface of people with Parkinson’s.
My comment: Evolutionary theorists cannot explain how sex differences in attraction arose, but Professor Barran linked olfaction and pheromones from food odors to RNA-mediated cell type differentiation of all cell types in all tissues of all organs and all organ systems of all vertebrates via the decapeptide,gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH).
These findings indicate that the substitution of glycine for a chiral amino acid in GnRH during evolution allows a more constrained conformation for receptor binding and that this subtle single amino acid substitution in a site remote from the ligand functional domains has marked effects on its structure and activity.
Unfortunately, many researcher still like to frame their results in the context of evolution. However, in the same year (2005) Nobel Laureate Linda Buck co-authored an artcle that clearly links ecological variation to ecological adaptation: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction
Indications that GnRH peptide plays an important role in the control of sexual behaviors suggest that pheromone effects on these behaviors might also involve GnRH neurons.
Here we review recent evidence suggesting that GnRH neurons might directly sense changes in glucose availability by a mechanism involving AMP-activated protein kinase. These findings expand our understanding of how metabolic signaling in the brain regulates reproduction.
GnRH neurons of the vertebrate hypothalamus form the final common pathway for central control of reproduction. Nutrient-dependent metabolic networks and genetic networks link glucose to the GnRH-modulated physiology of reproduction and skin odors in humans.
The skin odors are called pheromones in all other vertebrates and invertebrates, and in all other species from microbes to humans.
Pheromones control the physiology of reproduction. The fact that human pheromones have now been linked to the early diagnosis of Parkinson’s attests to the role of pheromones in learning and memory in Alzheimer’s disease, and to the role of RNA-mediated events in all cell type differentiation that leads to healthy longevity.
See for example: Androsterone-etiocholanolone ratios in male homosexuals
Analyses of 24-hour specimens of urine from healthy adult males for androsterone and etiocholanolone produced values which, when calculated as discriminant scores, discriminated between heterosexual and exclusively homosexual individuals.
My comment: Healthy longevity is homosexual males is linked to a difference in their androsterone-etiocholanolone ratios. This was reported in 1971 as: Homosexual chemistry. Newsweek, April 26, 54‑55. My former genetics professor, the late Leonard Storm, gave me a copy of the Newsweek article in the early 80’s.
I included citations to the work by Margolese, and the work by Margolese with Janiger, in a series of published works that led to this award-winning journal article and book chapter: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences
The A/E ratio also may vary with sexual orientation. Massion-Verniory (1957) predicted that a by-product of hormone metabolism found in urine would be found to differentiate homosexuals from heterosexuals. Subsequently, Margolese (1970) has reported that A/E ratios in urine samples could be used to determine whether a particular urine sample came from a heterosexual male or a homosexual male. His finding that homosexual males have decreased urinary A/E ratios was confirmed by Evans (1972), Margolese and Janiger (1973), and Friedman, Dyrenfurth, Linkie, Tendler, & Fleiss (1977).
Although the production of DHEA and DHEA-S and changes in A/E ratios are very sensitive to other influences, including influences from the immune system, Margolese and Janiger (1973) have speculated that the decreased urinary A/E ratios in homosexual males indicate a shift in a metabolic pathway toward the female side. They also raised the possibility of possible enzyme induction by prenatal hormone conditions, which include GnRH-directed, LH-facilitated prenatal hormone conditions. They proposed “. . . that the metabolic pathway which results in a relatively high androsterone value is associated with sexual preference for females by either sex, whereas a relatively low androsterone value is associated with sexual preference for males by either sex (p. 210).”
The across-species links from food odors and pheromones to human physiology and behavior via GnRH, caused human sexuality researchers to make comments like this: What about flies?
This model is attractive in that it solves the “binding problem” of sexual attraction. By that I mean the problem of why all the different features of men or women (visual appearance and feel of face, body, and genitals; voice quality, smell; personality and behavior, etc.) attract people as a more or less coherent package representing one sex, rather than as an arbitrary collage of male and female characteristics. If all these characteristics come to be attractive because they were experienced in association with a male- or female-specific pheromone, then they will naturally go together even in the absence of complex genetically coded instructions.”
Still, even in fruit flies, other sensory input besides pheromones — acoustic, tactile, and visual stimuli — play a role in sexual attraction, and sex specific responses to these stimuli appear to be innate rather than learned by association [36.]. We simply don’t know where the boundary between prespecified attraction and learned association lie in our own species, nor do we have compelling evidence for the primacy of one sense over another.
My comment: Jay R. Feierman asked “What about birds?” Compelling evidence for the primacy of olfaction and pheromones, including human pheromones, has appeared in the extant literature since the first volume (issue 2) of the prestigious journal Hormones and Behavior, in 1970. Homosexuality: A new endocrine correlate.
In our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation, we linked sexual orientation in yeasts across species to human sexual orientation via the conserved molecular mechanisms we detailed in our section on molecular epigenetics. See: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior
Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).
Now that the link to Parkinson’s appears to be the same link from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in all living genera, scientific progress may be made by ignoring the pseudoscientific nonsense of neo-Darwinian theorists who never learned anything about GnRH or RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in vertebrate.
Neo-Darwinian theorists continue to remove my posts to their sites. For example, Laurence Moran removed my comment on achiral glycine in 2009 after he reported:
It might benefit others and me if you would comment on the most likely role of the achiral glycine substitution in the molecule of GnRH. I have the impression that the added stability of protein folding caused it to be conserved across 400 million years of vertebrate evolution because GnRH integrates all sensory input and its pulses of GnRH distribute information to every neuron in the vertebrate brain. The link from the epigenetic landscape via olfactory/pheromonal input to the physical landscape of DNA becomes clearer in the context of thermodynamically controlled alternative splicings and protein folding. It is that link that excludes mutations theory from further consideration at a time when people here seem destined to believe in nonsense unless you step in.
Revisiting Moran’s pseudoscientific nonsense:
I wrote, and Moran removed the following comment:
What happens when someone clearly opposes the issues that you support?
See for comparison: All About that Base (Meghan Trainor Parody)
See also: Chemists Know – (Parody of “Let It Go” from Frozen)
Virtually all serious scientists have learned to link nutrient-dependent changes in base pairs from RNA-mediated protein folding chemistry to biophysically constrained ecological adaptations via the physiology of reproduction.
If you tried to place the claims from these parodies into the context of neo-Darwinian theories, the serious scientists would probably have even more fun exposing the ignorance of evolutionary theorists.
Meanwhile, see also: A Postulate on the Brain’s Basic Wiring Logic
Start with base pairs, Laurence Moran. Tell us how the bacterial flagellum re-evolved in four days, or pretend you didn’t hear about that report.
When the nucleotides bond to form a base, these clouds must oscillate in opposite directions to ensure the stability of the structure.
My comment: The most likely link from the sensory environment to cell type differentiation via quantum unentanglement is the de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes. De novo gene creation is RNA-mediated and has been referred to as the “holy grail” of biology because it links physics and chemistry to the conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation in all living genera via their physiology of reproduction.
See also: Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides (2013)
Chapter 106 GnRH (LHRH) Page 794 Figure 2 indicates that substitution at position 6 with glycine or any other D-amino acid stabilizes the folded conformation and increases binding affinity and decreases metabolic clearance. This feature is incorporated in all agonist and antagonist analogs.
Summary: Only one nutrient-dependent RNA-mediated amino acid substitution is required to link nutrient energy from base pairs to cell type differentiation via the physiology of reproduction and chromosomal rearrangements in vertebrates,
…our results illustrate a detailed chain of events linking a chromosomal rearrangement to changes in overt social behavior.
Although the idea of frequency-dependent release of amino acid and neuropeptide transmitters is widely accepted (Lundberg and Hökfelt, 1983), the present report provides a rare example of this principal in the mammalian CNS (Verhage et al., 1991).
My comment: When can we expect human sexuality researchers, other social scientists and pseudoscientists to accept he fact that human pheromones are signals of health; natural variation that includes sexual orientation; healthy longevity, and virus-perturbed pathology? Isn’t it past time for everyone to accept the fact that only a single amino acid substitution during the life history transitions of honeybees and humans can dramatically alter outcomes manifested in morphological and behavioral phenotypes?