Pheromone-controlled systems biology

Theoretical aspects of Systems Biology   Review Article
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology, Available online 3 April 2013, Subscription required  Mariano Bizzarri, Alessandro Palombo, Alessandra Cucina

Abstract excerpt: In the past, biological research has focused on questions that could be answered by a reductionist program of genetics. The organism (and its development) was considered an epiphenomenona of its genes. However, a profound rethinking of the biological paradigm is now underway and it is likely that such a process will lead to a conceptual revolution emerging from the ashes of reductionism. This revolution implies the search for general principles on which a cogent theory of biology might rely.

Excerpt from Fig. 1. …each level is both characterized and governed by emergent laws that do not appear at the lower levels of organization. By this way, hierarchical organization in between different levels creates both bottom-up and downward causation.

Excerpt from Fig. 2. Cell differentiation is driven by the interplay between the morphogenetic field and the gene expression pattern. Biophysical forces are acting within and throughout the field in selecting phenotypes that arise according to a stochastic process.

My comment: The “…general principles on which a cogent theory of biology might rely” are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled as indicated by Darwin’s “Conditions of Existence.” The insertion of statistical misrepresentations of Natural Selection subsequently bastardized Darwinian theory. Those who continue to propagate their nonsense about randomness and mutations theory are continuing to bastardize Darwinian theory. For comparison, see: Kohl (published to figshare.com):  Nutrient-dependent / Pheromone-controlled Adaptive Evolution

This model of systems biology represents the conservation of bottom-up organization and top-down activation via:

Nutrient stress-induced and social stress-induced intracellular changes in the microRNA  (miRNA)  /  messenger RNA  (mRNA) balance;

Intermolecular changes in DNA (genes) and alternative splicing;

Non-random experience-dependent stochastic variations in de novo gene expression and biosynthesis of odor receptors;

The required gene-cell-tissue-organ-organ system pathway that links sensory input directly to gene activation in neurosecretory cells and to miRNA-facilitated learning and memory in the amygdala of the adaptively evolved mammalian brain;

The required reciprocity that links gene expression to behavior that alters gene expression (i.e., reciprocity from genes to behavior and back) in model organisms like the honeybee.

The model addresses some important aspects included in the review article on the Theoretical aspects of Systems Biology:

1) Emergent laws that do not appear at the lower levels of genetically predisposed invertebrate hormone-organized and hormone-activated behavior exemplified in the honeybee model organism by hierarchical organization across different levels, which creates bottom-up (i.e., nutrient-dependent) and top-down (i.e., pheromone-controlled) causation.

2) Interplay between biophysical forces that act on gene expression and morphology and result in phenotypical characteristics, which include behavior. Changes in behavior provide a feedback loop that also acts on gene expression associated with non-random nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled stochastic processes for cell differentiation.

Simply put, natural selection of phenotype is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.

 

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society