Parallel molecular evolution

My comment for “Parallel Molecular Evolution in an Herbivore Community” has been approved and may be viewed on the Science site.

“It’s difficult to swallow further propagation of a theory, which now includes
ingesting a toxin as one of the events that contributes to adaptive

The toxin did not kill the organism that ingested it, which is great for that
individual. But how did the epigenetic effects of the toxin on intracellular
signaling and stochastic gene expression contribute to species survival if
not via a species-specific change in the pheromones that control

Adaptive evolution via speciation is nutrient chemical-dependent and
reproduction is pheromone-dependent in all species. In the context of
ingesting a toxin, adaptive evolution requires two mistakes: 1) ingest the
toxin 2) chemically signal to conspecifics that it’s beneficial to their

Can anyone calculate the odds that two random events (e.g., ingestion of a
chemical and a change in chemical signaling) concurrently occur each time
adaptive evolution occurs via the requirement for ecological, social,
neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction. That’s what’s required
for me to accept the theory that DNA mistakes are evolutionary innovations.

At a time when olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary
trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans,
it is the inability to see the obvious pattern of biological design across
species that is more amazing to me than claims of adaptive evolution via
mutations that are now associated with ingested toxins.”

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society