Emergence and Diversification of Fly Pigmentation Through Evolution of a Gene Regulatory Module (22 March 2013)L. Arnoult et al.
Excerpt [subscription required]: Pigmentation spots on the wings of flies originate from changes at different levels of the underlying genetic hierarchy.
Conclusion with my emphasis: I may have mentioned before that “This work illustrates how a transcription factor governing several effector genes to form a morphological trait has become a privileged genetic target to modify the spatial pattern of this trait during evolution (8). A similar logic may apply generally to the numerous morphological patterns that vary spatially between related species (8–12): The emergence of these morphological novelties may result from the evolutionary modifications of effector genes, whereas their spatial diversification involves the redeployment of upstream patterning genes.
My comment: As also exemplified in the honeybee model organism; in all other invertebrates like the peppered moth; in finches and in pigeons; and in the Agouti mouse model of mammalian coloration, the Emergence and Diversification of Fly Pigmentation Through Evolution of a Gene Regulatory Module adds substantiating evidence for nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution in species from microbes to man. I anxiously await substantiating evidence for the theory that mutations of any type (e.g., missense or nonsense) are somehow responsible for adaptive evolution, which obviously occurs at the molecular level, not at the level observed in the context of statistical analyses of observed species differences.
I continue to wonder why evolutionary theorists do not immediately respond to reports like this, as soon as they are added to the evidence against mutations theory. However, the evidence against mutations theory has become insurmountable. Therefore, we are beginning to see the term ‘mutation’ redefined, but those re-definitions also seem to misrepresent biologically based cause and effect in the context of adaptive evolution.
This suggests to me that evolutionary theorists and other social scientists will need to learn more about the basic principles of biology and levels of biological organization if their works are to ever regain a semblance of scientific credibilty.