Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled autism spectrum disorders

Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at-risk for autism: a preliminary near-infrared spectroscopy study Brandon Keehn, Jennifer Wagner, Helen Tager-Flusberg, and Charles A Nelson

Excerpt: Although we are currently unable to determine whether differences in [increased] connectivity at 3- and [statistically insignificant reduced connectivity at] 12-months were driven by infants that will later go on to meet diagnostic criteria for ASD, the results add to a growing body of evidence suggesting that atypical connectivity may be an potential endophenotype for ASD (e.g., Barnea-Goraly et al., 2010).

Functional and structural connectivity of frontostriatal circuitry in Autism Spectrum Disorder Sonja Delmonte, Louise Gallagher, Erik O’Hanlon, Jane Mc Grath, and Joshua H Balsters

Excerpt: Frontostriatal circuitry plays an important role in social motivation, which is postulated to underlie deficits in social interaction and communication in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) (Dawson et al., 2005, 2012; Chevallier et al., 2012).

My comment: Functional connectivity is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled via hormone organization and hormone activation linked directly from the sensory environment to behavior. Within minutes of birth, sex differences occur in hormone-dependent functional connectivity, which is primarily influenced by the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones on GnRH secretion, and LH, which leads to sex differences in nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled social behavior throughout life. The link to the sex differences in rates of autism becomes perfectly clear in this excerpt from Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter? ( 2001 )
Excerpt: “Within a few minutes after birth, the concentration of LH in serum increases abruptly (about 10-fold) in the peripheral blood of the male newborn but not in that of the female newborn. This short-lived surge in LH release is followed by an increase in the serum testosterone level during the first 3 hours that persists for 12 hours or more. In the female neonate, LH levels do not increase, and FSH levels in both males and females are low in the first few days of neonatal life. After the fall in circulating placental steroid levels, especially estrogens, during the first few days after birth, serum FSH and LH levels increase and exhibit a pulsatile pattern with wide perturbations for several months. The FSH pulse amplitude is greater in female infants, and the FSH response to hypothalamic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone is higher in females than males throughout childhood; LH pulses are higher in males. A sex difference in plasma FSH and LH values is also present in anorchid boys and agonadal girls less than three years old.

The high gonadotropin concentrations in infancy are associated with a transient second wave of differentiation of fetal-type Leydig cells and increased serum testosterone levels in male infants for the first 6 months or so and with elevated estradiol levels intermittently in the first 1 to 2 years of life in females. The mean FSH level is higher in females than males during the first few years of life. By approximately 6 to 8 months of age in the male and 2 to 3 years of age in the female, plasma gonadotropin levels decrease to low values until the onset of puberty.”

My comments:
In the real world of evolutionary biology the link to sex differences in behavior throughout life would be the obvious sex differences in the response of male infants compared to female infants, since it predicts all other differences in hormone-organized and hormone-activated behavior, which include the differences manifested in the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). If ASDs are considered to be disorders of social interaction and communication, it would make sense to look first for differences in the genetically predisposed innate response that links sensory stimuli to hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors associated with attachment.  Instead, researchers tend to look at brain imagery associated with visual input and look at oxytocin levels that are so far downstream of their dependence on nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled GnRH pulse frequency that statistical analyses of results are invariably confounded. Meaningless results are, however, meaningfully interpreted and drug/behavioral interventions are prescribed. You may recall my first question about obvious/ misrepresentations of cause and effect in circumstances such as these. I always ask, “Is there a model for that?” Mutation-driven evolution is not a model of anything!

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society