Nematodes: nutrient and pheromone-controlled adaptations

Glowing worms illuminate the roots of behavior

Excerpt: “These animals are genetically identical, and they were raised together in the same environment, so where do their different choices come from?”

My comment: Their choices are experience-dependent, nutrient-dependent, receptor mediated and pheromone-controlled. I detailed that fact.

See: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

Excerpt 1: …the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones are involved in neurogenic niche construction as exemplified in nematodes (Bumbarger, Riebesell, Rödelsperger, & Sommer, 2013)…

Excerpt 2: Differences in the behavior of nematodes are determined by nutrient-dependent rewiring of their primitive nervous system (Bumbarger et al., 2013). Species incompatibilities in nematodes are associated with cysteine-to-alanine substitutions (Wilson et al., 2011), which may alter nutrient-dependent pheromone production.

Predictably researchers will next find that species-specific pheromones associated with the cysteine-to-alanine substitutions differentially light up these nerve cells in nematodes of different species.

This will extend my model from yeasts to nematodes with even more experimental evidence that refutes mutation-initiated natural selection and replaces that ridiculous theory with nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution as should have happened when we provided details of molecular epigenetics in our 1996 review article: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior

Excerpt: Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…

Caenorhabditis elegans is the model organism that led to the report on the glowing worms and their behavior: High-throughput imaging of neuronal activity in Caenorhabditis elegans

Nutrient-dependent alternative splicings cause different responses to food odors and also cause sex differences and species differences in pheromone-controlled behavior in species from microbes to man. In microbes, see for example: Signaling Crosstalk: Integrating Nutrient Availability and Sex. The molecular mechanisms are conserved across all species.

See for example in Kohl (2012): Socioaffective neuroscience and psychology may progress more quickly by keeping these apparent facts in mind: Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000).

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My comment to Science Magazine (as a follow up to the article Mosaic Copy Number Variation in Human Neurons)

Submitted on 11/15/13 at 07:32 and approved at 07:50 EST.

Re: Aplysia. Why not nematodes?

“High-throughput imaging of neuronal activity in Caenorhabditis elegans” https://www.pnas.org/content/110/45/E4266.full

The article helps to elucidate the conserved molecular epigenetics of cause and effect in a model organism of ecological, social, and neurogenic niche construction sans mutations theory.

Altered transcription can be associated with minimal variability in epigenetic landscapes that results in neurons with different genomes and distinct molecular phenotypes.

Effects of olfactory/pheromonal input appear to directly link the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man. In nematodes, conserved molecular mechanisms now link pulsing food odors and observed responses to the pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in vertebrates. GnRH pulses links the epigenetic effects of food odors and pheromones to human behavior via systems biology and the ability of pulses to integrate information and rapidly transmit it throughout neuronal networks.

We can better understand the development of subtle differences in human behavior that are genetically predisposed and epigenetically effected. This will help us distinguish between genetic predisposition (nature) and effects of the sensory environment (nurture)during behavioral development.

The advantage is that we can also avoid attributing differences to mutations-initiated natural selection or to mutation-driven evolution by using what is known about biologically based cause and effect.

 

 

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society