More bird-brained behavior

Human preferences for faces are determined via their association with hormones that metabolize to pheromones, which determine the social preferences of other mammals whose interest in not in facial expression but in chemical cues of nutrient-dependent reproductive fitness.

Those who think that the development of face preferences can can be meaningfully interpreted in the context of only visual cues, place themselves firmly in an ethological world that is known to ignore the importance of olfactory/pheromonal input in some species (e.g. avian species) to further the less relevant study of audiovisual input as a primary influence on behavior.  New evidence from a study of the males of one avian species will no doubt be extended to humans during the next decade or so, as more is learned about olfaction in birds. I am, however, impatient to offer it as an example of what is wrong with basic research in the context of avian behavior.

This evidence suggests that social context regulates both sexual signaling (e.g., colorful ornamentation) and testosterone, which is typically associated with more colorful ornamentation in avian species and other species. When testosterone levels were manipulated in a social context (e.g., male competition),  changes in colorful orientation and sexual signaling appeared to be the result of increased testosterone.

Levels of sex steroids, like testosterone, metabolize to androgenic “male” pheromones in mammals, and testosterone is associated with darker complexion (a more reddish hue) of human males compared to human females. This represents an extension of testosterone dependent sexual signaling via color that can be found — with variations — in the males and females of all mammals. All of the variations can be directly linked to sex hormones and sex differences in pheromones, which are responsible for the control of reproduction in species from microbes to man.

What this means is that even in species that do not have any colorful ornamentation, the pheromones control reproduction. What that means is the evolutionary theorists cannot, without question, make the assumption that we are primarily visual creatures.  The basis for that assumption was a non-existent avian model, one that has gradually gone missing from the literature, only to leave a gaping hole in theories about the development of human behavior that fail to incorporate what’s known about the role of olfactory/pheromonal input in every other species on this planet.



About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society