Modeling odor processing in microbes, mice, and mankind

In Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors, I conclude that olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from microbes to man. The representation of this evolutionary trail in my model appears to equate with a 3/19/12 report from the Stowers Institute for Medical Research about the article: “Distributed representation of chemical features and tunotopic organization of glomeruli in the mouse olfactory bulb.” As indicated in their report New model show how the brain is organized to process odor information, the difference between my model and this “new model” may lie only in across-species comparisons, and my extension of a mammalian model to man.

In my model what they call “tuning” equates with the effects of nutrient chemicals that “calibrate” the survival of individual organisms. This “calibration” is followed by the effects of pheromones that “standardize” and “control” speciation. Thus, two different types of chemical stimuli are directly linked both to intracellular signaling and to the stochastic gene expression that is required for de novo olfactory receptor genes.

Whether it is called tuning, calibration, control, or standardization, the direct effect of chemical stimuli on intracellular signaling and gene expression occurs as other sensory input is processed. Simply put, cause and effect are directly linked to chemical stimuli and gene expression at the same time other sensory input is processed. Responses to other sensory input from the environment are conditioned to occur via the direct effect of nutrient chemicals and pheromones on intracellular signaling and gene expression.

The molecular basis of learning and memory is a secondary underlying theme of my model. In mammals, for example,  food odors, pheromones, and movement/exercise have been linked to intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in neurosecretory cells of brain tissue, and to luteinizing hormone and hippocampal neurogenesis. For additional information on the role of conditioning, learning, and memory see Woodson, 2012). It is important to note that conditioning, learning, and memory occur without other sensory input in organisms with no olfactory bulbs, ears, or eyes. And, it is this “tuning” that allows for the evolution of species with olfactory bulbs, ears, and eyes.

When it comes to whatever behavior they attempt to explain, those who have no model for the evolution of different species may equate the importance of visual or auditory input with the importance of olfactory/pheromonal input. But there is no mammalian model for the evolution of human behavior that does not first need to consider the effects of food odors and pheromones on hormones. In this context we can forget the analogies, metaphors, definitions, and allegorical representations. Clearly the focus must be on evolution’s sensory drive: olfaction. Those who would rather make everything about the development of human sexual behavior seem to depend on visual and auditory input should first be asked: “Is there a model for that?”

About James V. Kohl 1307 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society