High-throughput engineering of a mammalian genome reveals building principles of methylation states at CG rich regions
Excerpt: “…deviation from the derived models is a characteristic hallmark of methylation changes associated with cancer states suggesting that this phenomenon is mechanistically distinct from differentiation related methylation changes.”
My comment: The article helps to detail the difference between facts about the molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated events that lead to cell type differentiation and theories that try to link evolutionary events to cell fate determination. It may teach evolutionary theorists a lesson they do not want to learn. They must learn that mutations associated with ridiculous theories about the evolution of cell fate do not lead from natural selection to increasing organismal complexity manifested in biodiversity.
Cell type differentiation is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. Epigenetically-effected RNA mediated events lead to biodiversity via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man. The amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types are proof of biologically based cause and effect that links the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genome of species from microbes to man.
Mutations lead to diseases and disorders that prevent cross species comparisons of the biologically-based cause and effect that links ecological variation to ecological adaptations manifested in disease-free morphological and behavioral phenotypes
Alpha genomix is helping you and your physician to take advantage of what is known about cell type differentiation by serious scientists. For example, see: Clinically Actionable Genotypes Among 10,000 Patients With Preemptive Pharmacogenomic Testing
Excerpt: “Moving forward, each of these cases represents an opportunity to improve therapeutic outcomes.”
My comment: RNA-directed DNA methylation links RNA-mediated events to amino acid substitutions that stabilize organized genomes via metabolism of nutrients. Genomic instability is manifested in different cell types in different individuals via testing for enzymes associated with the metabolism of nutrients and pharmaceuticals.
The knowledge gained by testing for different enzymes and other factors can help your physician determine which medication and dosage of the medication might be the most beneficial. The knowledge gained by testing for different enzymes and other factors can also help you avoid the potential side effects of what may be a less desirable treatment based on what is currently known about pharmacogenomics.
See also, from Kohl (2012) with my emphasis “The gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ-system pathway is a neuroscientifically established link between sensory input and behavior. Marts and Resnick (2007) stress the importance of this pathway in the context of a systems biology approach to pharmacogenomics. Naftolin (1981) stressed its importance to the understanding of sex differences. This pathway is sensitive to conditioning. Sensory input from an organism’s environment activates and reactivates the pathway and causes changes in hormone secretion that condition hormone-driven behavior.
The evolved interaction between the environment and behavior is exemplified when sensory input epigenetically causes variations in gene expression. From the prenatal stage of mammals until death, this interaction begins with gene activation that mediates long-term effects associated with nutrition (Flagel et al., 2011; Lenroot & Giedd, 2011) and with effects of social experiences on neural networks that generate behavior (Boehm, Zou, & Buck, 2005).”
Understanding sex differences in cell types has since led to the understanding of how RNA-mediated events epigenetically link cell type differentiation in all cells of all tissues of all organs in all organ systems of each individual’s body to health and disease. See, for example:
Excerpt: “The modes of genetic information delivery in this process are closely reminiscent of those operating in RNA-mediated paramutation inheritance, whereby RNA is the determinant of inheritable epigenetic variations , .”
A recent video with information from different experts on epigenetics is linked below: