Posted: May 27, 2015 10:19 AM EST Updated: May 27, 2015 6:49 PM EST
Sex pheromones were widely used in mating disruption techniques of IPM for crop protection in order to increase agricultural yield. Mating disruption being the most effective IPM technique is expected to witness wide acceptance globally thus augmenting sex pheromones demand over the forecast period.
Kohl (2012) conclusion:
Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans (Keller et al., 2007; Kohl, 2007; Villarreal, 2009; Vosshall, Wong, & Axel, 2000).
My comment: The molecular mechanisms that link olfaction to the experience-dependent de novo creation of odor receptor genes in insects and all mammals are conserved. Nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions link the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding via fixation of the amino acid substitutions in the context of reproduction. That is how all new genes are fixed in all genera. If not for the claims of human pheromone-deniers and evolutionary theorists, all researcher would have understood how all cell type differentiation occurs.
There would be no more pseudoscientific nonsense linked to claims like this one: “…genomic conservation and constraint-breaking mutation is the ultimate source of all biological innovations and the enormous amount of biodiversity in this world.” (p. 199) Mutation-Driven Evolution Given the fact that accumulated mutations are linked only to pathology, people would have by now learned about Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
All serious scientists would have learned that ecological variation is linked by RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions to ecological adaptations. Effective treatments and cures for most human pathologies would have been developed based on what is known about how RNA-mediated metabolic networks are linked to genetic networks. The domain Pheromones.com would be worth hundreds of thousands of dollars. And Richard L. Doty’s opinion would still be as worthless as ever. In The Great Pheromone Myth He wrote: (p. 3) “A key element of my thesis is that it is erroneous to infer that a plurality of mammalian behaviors and endocrine responses is uniquely determined in an invariant way by single or small sets of chemical stimuli and to apply a generic and misleading name to the presumptive agents in support of such an inference.” No one, except him, ever inferred that.
Facts that link RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in mammals to insects were detailed in From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior. Our model was extended to hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors in insects via the conserved molecular mechanisms of biophysically constrained protein folding in species from yeasts to mammals. See: Organizational and activational effects of hormones on insect behavior. Anyone who cannot link biologically-based cause and effect from yeasts to insects and mammals and back is biologically uninformed. Researchers who are biologically informed about the role that food odors and pheromones play in RNA-mediated cell type differentiation will eventually make the human pheromone market worth billions to researchers who are Combating Evolution to Fight Disease.