Human pheromones work by effecting hormones that affect behavior

Despite the evidence that pheromones effect testosterone levels and sexual arousal in mammals — including non-human primates — some researchers continue to insist that human pheromones do not exist. Marketers correctly tell you that human pheromones exist, but typically they do not tell you what pheromones are contained in the products they are trying to sell you, or why their products work — if they do. Personally, I have been too caught up in the science of human pheromones to pay much attention to marketing. But from time to time, I intend to better inform others via posts to this domain that help to explain why the pheromones marketed on this site work.

Here, I am responding to the number of relatively uninformed people who are writing essays that tell others about how pheromones work, but who fail to provide any evidence for their claims. In this case, I’ve included citations to research that helps to detail how copulins work. The citations support a scientific approach to marketing human pheromone-enhanced products, like The Scent of Eros products that I formulated.

Copulins are olfactory/pheromonal stimuli from women (human pheromones) that appear to condition increased testosterone and sexual arousal in men. Male marmosets are aroused by the olfactory/pheromonal stimuli from novel peri-ovulatory females; they exhibit increased rates of sniffing and erections and a significant elevation of serum testosterone levels (Ziegler et al., 2005). Men also show this elevation of serum testosterone levels when exposed to olfactory/pheromonal stimuli associated with ovulatory-phase women. This testosterone increase is associated with increases in the favorable assessment of photographs of women. (Jutte & Grammer, 1997). Simply put, the ovulatory-phase olfactory/pheromonal input makes the women look better to men.

Kohl (2007), noted that this testosterone response to olfactory/pheromonal input has been repeatedly indicated or reported in findings from non-human animal studies and from human studies.  In mammals, short-term exposure of males to females is linked to a testosterone increase in men, as well as in rats, mice, rabbits, bulls, rams, and monkeys.  The testosterone increase in non-human mammals is believed to be due to the effect of olfactory/pheromonal conditioning of a luteinizing hormone response that precedes the testosterone increase (Graham & Desjardins, 1980).

See also: Jutte A & Grammer, K (1997). Female pheromones modify men’s physiology and assessments of women. International Symposium on Olfaction and Taste XII and AchemS XIX. San Diego, California. ” As Alexander & Sherwin (1991) showed, there is a parallel between heightened testosterone levels and selective attention for erotic stimuli.”


About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society