Human Pheromones and Consilience

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My comments:

What makes the answer to one question more important than the answer to another question in attempts to understand proximate and ultimate cause across the levels of analysis that are required to link sensory input to evolution and behavior? Evolution of the genotype and its phenotypic expression can only be congruently addressed via the gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ system pathway. No part of this pathway lies outside what is required for a coherent understanding of consilience.

The requirements for proximate bottom-up causal organization and proximate top-down causal activation of this pathway include the reciprocity that is ultimately required for evolution. These requirements are met in the following example of cause and effect.

1) Nutrient chemicals cause receptor-mediated changes in intracellular signaling that cause stochastic gene expression – a bottom-up approach to the biology of consilience.

2) The metabolism of nutrient chemicals to pheromones allows chemicals from the social environment to cause receptor-medicated changes in intracellular signaling that cause stochastic gene expression – a top-down approach to the biology of consilience.

3) Organisms without the ability to acquire sufficient nutrient chemicals do not produce the required pheromones and they do not reproduce via receptor-mediated gene activation. Evolution does not occur.

4) Organisms with genetically predisposed behaviors that allow them to acquire sufficient nutrient chemicals establish their ecological niche via receptor-mediated gene activation. Evolution occurs.

Genetically predisposed nutrient dependent ecotypes establish pheromone dependent social niches. These nutrient dependent ecotypes and social niches are fundamental requirements for evolution in species from microbes to man.

The nutrient chemical / pheromone dependent social niche contributes to similarities and differences in the neurogenic niches required for invertebrate and vertebrate brain development and behavior. Adaptive evolution of the brain and behavior is calibrated by nutrients, but it is standardized and controlled by pheromones.

A fundamental question that incorporates proximate and ultimate cause has become one of pattern recognition. Why isn’t the reason for the conserved molecular biology common to all species addressed as the most important of all questions to be answered?

A basic understanding of this conserved molecular biology is required for a coherent understanding of evolution, its congruence, and the pattern recognition of consilience (i.e., the gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ system pathway). Nutrient chemicals and pheromones cause changes in intracellular signaling and gene expression in cells of tissue in the most important organ of all organ systems involved in behavior: the brain.

Conciliatory caveat: An evolved brain is not required. Nutrient chemicals and pheromones cause changes in intracellular signaling and behavior in unicellular organisms and in all species via molecular mechanisms that are so similar as to be readily recognized in a pattern of evolution.

When this pattern recognition is too technically difficult to detail, scientists could simply say that all organisms are what they eat and their peers recognize them via the pheromones they produce. Food preferences and people preferences develop due to receptor-mediated events driven by chemicals, or simply put it’s the “chemistry”. Once this pattern is recognized we could simply say that ultimately, olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans, as was my conclusion in Kohl (2012).

Kohl, J. V. (2012). Human pheromones and food odors: epigenetic influences on the socioaffective nature of evolved behaviors. Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology, 2, 17338 – DOI: 17310.13402/snp.v17332i17330.17338.


About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society