Human Pheromones Affect Women's Behavior

Association for Chemoreception Sciences 2011

Human Pheromones, Epigenetics, Physiology, and the Development of Animal Behavior

In eusocial insects like the honeybee, diet and pheromones are epigenetic determinants of virtually all aspects of each organism’s existence. The honeybee serves as a model organism for studying human immunity, disease resistance, allergic reactions, circadian rhythms, antibiotic resistance, development, mental health, longevity, and diseases of the X chromosome. Included among these different aspects of eusocial species survival are learning and memory as well as conditioned responses to sensory stimuli. Mammalian conditioning paradigms suggest that androstenol experientially conditions hormonal effects in females, which may be unconsciously associated with behavioral affects of androsterone in women. Androsterone smells like fresh sweat. It is an individual human male-specific and somewhat primate-specific component of axillary secretions that also contain androstenol, which influences levels of luteinizing hormone (LH) and mood in women. LH is a measure of diet-dependent sexual maturity and fertility, which is influenced by mammalian pheromones. We evaluated individual video-taped fifteen-minute interactions of fourteen women with ovulatory phase levels of LH during a cooperative task. During the task, our male accomplice wore either a standardized androstenol / androsterone mixture diluted in propylene glycol, or just the diluent — with sandalwood odor added to keep him blind to his condition. When he was wearing the mixture compared to when he wore the diluent, women were more likely to make eye contact with him (t(12) = 3.43, p = .01; IRR: r = .964, p = .01). They also laughed more during the interaction (t(12) = 5.20, p <.01; IRR: r = .810, p = .01) and they rated themselves as being more attracted to him (t(12) = 2.786, p = .016). Our results combine the known effects of androstenol on LH and on mood in women with behavioral affects we attribute to androsterone. They also extend to human females the eusocial insect model for epigenetic effects of diet and pheromones on hormone-mediated gene expression during behavioral development. Our disclosed mixture better characterizes species-specific human pheromones; their life-long effect on physiology, and their affect on behavior with no need to change the 1959 definition of pheromones or to alter the concept of human pheromones first detailed in 1995. Epigenetic effects help to dispel the psychological construct that the pheromones of any species from insects to mammals uniquely determine genetically predisposed social context-dependent endocrine responses or behavior in an invariant way.

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society