Fixed mutations are not beneficial

A natural history of the human mind: tracing evolutionary changes in brain and cognition

Excerpt: “… humans have fixed mutations that yield two amino acid substitutions in comparison with other primates…’

My comment: Amino acid substitutions are nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled. The idea that the amino acid substitutions are due to mutations is one of the confusing left-overs from the ridiculous theory of mutation-initiated natural selection. For example, people tell me that mutation-driven evolution has occurred in microbes and usually cite the experiments of Richard Lenski as proof. But you don’t prove that anything mutated via changes in antibiotic resistance, or by demonstrating ecological adaptation when the organism survives on a different nutrient source. That’s what was shown in this experiment: Real-Time Evolution of New Genes by Innovation, Amplification, and Divergence .

Nutrient-driven gene duplication resulted in nutrient-driven differentiation of cell types that occurred via alternative splicings of pre-mRNA and amino acid substitutions that stabilized organism-level thermoregulation, which is controlled by the physiology of reproduction. Unfortunately, these researchers reported their results in terms of mutation-initiated natural selection.

Other researchers continue to repeatedly make the same misrepresentations of cause and effect. For example, in vertebrates the single amino acid substitution of achiral glycine in the gonadotropin releasing hormone molecule is the source of nutrient-dependent thermodynamic stability associated with the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction across what appears to be approximately 400 million years of vertebrate evolution.  Perhaps that is why researchers finally checked to see if mutations were fixed in the genome of the model organism C. elegans.

An experimental test on the probability of extinction of new genetic variants revealed that “…genetic diversity could be maintained indefinitely, without one allele or the other ever being fixed in the population.” Thus, there is no reason for any mutation to be fixed in the DNA of any organized genome in any species from microbes to man. Besides, mutations tend to be removed because they perturb cell type thermoregulation. For contrast, ecological adaptations require fixation of alleles that benefit epistasis via consistency in nutrient-dependent thermodynamics of intercellular signaling that result in organism-level thermoregulation.

Ecological adaptations are much less likely if a mutation is fixed, which is why no experimental evidence ever suggested that mutations are fixed.  See also:  Extended brain functions would have driven rapid and drastic changes in the hominin ecological niche, which in turn demanded further brain resources to adapt to it. In this way, humans have constructed a novel niche in each of the ecological, cognitive and neural domains, whose interactions accelerated their individual evolution through a process of triadic niche construction.  Had these authors included social niche construction, the result might have been quadratic niche construction, which is how ecological adaptations result in species diversification and increasing organismal complexity, which is attributed to “tool use” in their model.

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society