Whole-genome sequences of 16 different mosquito species reveal rapid evolution and could inform malaria research.
By Ruth Williams | November 27, 2014
Excerpt: “…mosquitoes are rapidly evolving, exhibiting high degrees of gene gains, losses, shuffling, and even transmission between closely related species.”
It is the reports on rapid evolution of insects that continues to limit the usefulness of any theories about mutations and or natural selection of anything except food.
My comments (below) to The Scientist site include links to cited works that show how ridiculous the claims of evolutionary theorists and other pseudoscientists have become in the light of what is currently known about physics, chemistry, and the conserved molecular mechanisms of RNA-mediated cell type differentiation in vertebrates and invertebrates.
Both papers provide really powerful information on the evolution of different malaria mosquito species…
In the context of everything known about Feedback loops [that] link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction, these papers can be combined with claims made in Multiple haplotype-resolved genomes reveal population patterns of gene and protein diplotypes.
One need only remove the claims about mutations, which Fontaine et al and Neafsey et al did, and replace them with accurate representations of what nutrient-dependent RNA-directed DNA methylation and RNA-mediated events do in the context of amino acid substitutions that differentiate all cell types in all individuals of all species via their pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction. See for examples: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model.
For information about biologically-based cause and effect in mosquitoes, see: Amino Acid Residues Contributing to Function of the Heteromeric Insect Olfactory Receptor Complex. Additional published works from Leslie Vosshall’s group also help others to eliminate mutations from the context of evolved biodiversity via information on the amino acids substitutions that differentiate cell types.
The conserved molecular mechanisms of cell type differentiation are bio-physically constrained by the chemistry of protein folding, which ensures that some nutrients lead to amino acid substitutions that stabilize the DNA in organized genomes and protect organized genomes against nutrient stress and social stress linked directly from ecological variation.
Nutrient stress and social stress have always been linked to mutations and pathology. We now see why they cannot be linked to increasing organismal complexity in any species. The mutations perturb protein folding.
For constrast, amino acid substitutions stabilize protein folding, which is how morphological and behavioral phenotypes change much more quickly than could ever be predicted in the context of evolutionary theory.
See also: orco mutant mosquitoes lose strong preference for humans and are not repelled by volatile DEET [my synopsis: Mutations are not beneficial.]
Evolution of mosquito preference for humans linked to an odorant receptor [my synopsis: Ecological variation is epigenetically linked by feedback loops to ecological adaptations via amino acid substitutions linked to the physical landscape of DNA.]
In the absence of experimental evidence that might otherwise link mutations to increasing organismal complexity via evolutionary events that have not been described, it is time to accept the obvious fact that Ecological variation is the raw material by which natural selection can drive evolutionary divergence [1–4]. Isn’t it?
If natural selection did not epigenetically link ecological variation directly to ecological adaptations via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man, there would be no biodiversity. Would there?
See also: Environmental epigenetic inheritance through gametes and implications for human reproduction
Excerpt: “Extensive molecular evidence suggests that epigenetic information carriers including DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs and chromatin proteins in gametes play important roles in the transmission of phenotypes from parents to offspring.”