Exercise Alters Epigenetics

Exercise causes short-term changes in DNA methylation and gene expression in muscle tissue that may have implications for type 2 diabetes.

from The Scientist News & Opinion

Excerpt: “This shows that there is some molecular evidence to support that notion that exercise is a medicine,” Zierath added.

My comment:

The common molecular biology across vertebrate species suggests that the epigenetic effects either of movement, or of exercise, on gene expression is due to the same mechanisms I have detailed in the context of the gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ system pathway (in accord with the FDA Critical Path Initiative and ASAM policy statement on addiction). This pathway links sensory input from the environment directly to gene activation and behavior. In mammals, for example, it is the gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system that is primarily responsible for the epigenetic effects of nutrient chemicals and species-specific pheromones on intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression in brain tissue responsible for movement. See for example: Feedback loops link odor and pheromone signaling with reproduction. Boehm U, Zou Z, Buck LB. Cell. 2005 Nov 18;123(4):683-95.

There is no reason not to link this common pathway to epigenetic effects of exercise on muscle tissue, because the hypothalamic GnRH pulse modulates pituitary secretion of gonadotropins involved in steroidogenesis and neurotransmission. Of particular interest is the effect of food odors and pheromones on hippocampal neurogenesis, thereby linking neurotransmission to learning, and memory that is also linked to the secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH). This links 1) the requirement for movement involved in food acquisition; 2) the requirement for movement involved in mate selection; and 3) the requirement for movement and/or exercise involved in reproductive fitness to survival of individuals and to species survival in species from microbes to man.

The model is the same for the development of species specific behaviors that depend on proper nutrition and nutrient metabolism to species specific pheromones. For example, in mammals: LH is the link between sex and the sense of smell (at least until someone suggests another model based on the basic principles of biology and levels of biological organization that are required).

About James V. Kohl 1307 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society