A video abstract is available via the above link to the article abstract information.
My comment: That fact can be addressed in the context of cell type differentiation. See for example:
“…our approach identified higher percentages of active miRNAs with CAGE-detected TSS activity and primary transcript expression, further supporting the validity of our approach, which will be valuable to understand the biological roles of miRNAs in specific cell contexts.”
I have not yet received the requested reprint of the article linked above, but can link it to works by others on cell type differentiation.
For example, Peter Kohl is among others who are taking an atoms to ecosystems approach that links nutrient-dependent amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in the vascular system.
The complexity of systems biology seems to be problematic for those who cannot grasp how the epigenetic effects of nutrient stress and social stress, which are associated with the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones, alters cell type differentiation of all cells in all tissues of all organs in all organ systems via changes in the nutrient-dependent microRNA/messenger RNA balance that lead to alternative splicings of pre-mRNA via conserved molecular mechanisms in species from microbes to man.
The researchers reporting on altered vascular systems in mice may not realize that stimulation of mouse whiskers is associated with classically conditioned responses to olfactory/pheromonal input that epigenetically effects cell type differentiation and hormone-organized and hormone-activated behaviors throughout life. However, recognizing that there are probably critical periods during life cycle transitions, such as those that have been detailed in the honeybee model organism, indicates scientific progress might continue to be made, based on what is already known about epigenetically-effected systems biology and how hormones affect behavior.
Minimally, these researchers do not seem to be taking an approach that links mutations and natural selection to the evolution of biodiversity manifested in the morphological and behavioral phenotypes of species from microbes to man. That pseudoscientific nonsense is eliminated by an ion channel to organismic phenotype that includes nutrient-dependent cell type differentiation, which is linked to biologically-based cause and effect via systems biology.
From ion channel to organismic phenotype: An example of integrative translational research into cardiac electromechanics
“This illustrates the utility of studying biologic behavior across multiple levels of structural and functional complexity.”
Systems Biology: An Approach “This kind of reciprocal variation must be a basis for the robustness that biological systems display in response to interventions such as gene knockouts, many of which appear to have no phenotypic effect. Hillenmeyer et al.16 studied this phenomenon in yeast and found that 80% of knockouts had no effect on the phenotype, as measured by cell growth and division, in a normal physiological environment. But when
the organisms were metabolically stressed, 97% of the same knockouts did affect growth. In this example, the phenotypic expression of any given gene was therefore conditional
on what the metabolic networks were experiencing. When backup networks are called into play because a particular metabolite is in short supply, the deficiency at the level of DNA may be revealed.
See also: Transcriptome-wide Discovery of microRNA Binding Sites in Human Brain
“The orchestration of brain function requires complex gene regulatory networks that are modulated, in part, by microRNAs (miRNAs).”
I’ve tried twice to publish and invited review on nutritional epigenetics. On the first attempt, no reviewers would review it. On the second attempt, the editor did not want to involve the journal in any debate about ecology and evolution.
There will be no debate because it is not allowed by evolutionary theorists who know their pseudoscientific nonsense is being exposed with each report of experimental evidence that links nutrient-dependent microRNAs to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in detailed representations of conserved molecular mechanisms that show how ecological variation leads to ecological adaptations.
From the conclusion: “Physical proof of species diversity links ecological variations from nutritional epigenetics to 1) biophysically constrained protein folding via 2) atomic level changes in base pairs (i.e., the nucleotides of DNA); 3) amino acid substitutions; 4) changes in the miRNA/mRNA balance; 5) the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones that 6) control the physiology of reproduction, and 7) chromosomal rearrangements that link the reciprocity of these interactions to the morphological and behavioral phenotypes manifested in species diversity. Across-species examples of biologically plausible ecologically validated cause and effect link the physical proof from conserved molecular mechanisms of DNA uptake that extends these representations of nutrient-dependent epigenetic effects to differences in pheromone-controlled morphological and behavioral human phenotypes.”