Epigenetic effects underlie sexual preferences III

Can Epigenetics Explain Homosexuality?  By Sabrina Richards January 1, 2013

Scientists propose a new model for how homosexuality develops, but observers say it will be difficult to test.

Excerpt: “It’s a very provocative, very interesting new twist that is plausible,” said Margaret McCarthy, a neuroscientist at the University of Maryland who studies how hormones influence brain development and was not involved in producing the model. But, she cautioned, so far the theory “is not supported by any data.”

My comment: Taken together, all data on hormone-organized and hormone-activated brain development and behavior in every species with a central nervous system conclusively proves that sexual orientation is nutrient chemical-dependent and pheromone-controlled. It is the nutrient chemicals and the pheromones that epigenetically effect the gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ system pathway of invertebrates and vertebrates, which links sensory input from their ever-changing environment to hormone-organized and hormone-activated behavior.

A new model for cause and effect was established in 1996, in From fertilization to adult sexual behavior.  “Research has established the broad mammalian developmental plan that genes on the sex chromosomes influence gonad development which determines gonadal hormone production (or its absence) leading to modification of the genitalia and simultaneously biasing the nervous system to organize adult sexual behavior. This might be considered the “gonad to hormones to behavior” model. It is clear, however, that although this model generally works well it is incomplete. The model does not account for behavioral influences attributed to the environment or to genetic but nongonadal or hormonal factors. In this essay we probe those areas of sexual development that are neither differentiated by hormones nor activated by them. The concept of the environment used for our discussion is very broad; it incorporates considerations of both the molar and the molecular levels.” (Diamond, Binstock, and Kohl)

Our 1996 addition to a decades-old model was restated, in part, 15 years later in 2011: Reframing sexual differentiation of the brain “In the twentieth century, the dominant model of sexual differentiation stated that genetic sex (XX versus XY) causes differentiation of the gonads, which then secrete gonadal hormones that act directly on tissues to induce sex differences in function. This serial model of sexual differentiation was simple, unifying and seductive. Recent evidence, however, indicates that the linear model is incorrect and that sex differences arise in response to diverse sex-specific signals originating from inherent differences in the genome and involve cellular mechanisms that are specific to individual tissues or brain regions.” (McCarthy and Arnold)

Data from research on pheromones somehow went missing from the reiteration of Diamond, Binstock, and Kohl (1996) by McCarthy and Arnold (2011).  Lest others continue to miss this, I will add…

Pheromones are sex-specific signals that originate from inherent sex differences in the genome. They epigenetically effect the cellular mechanisms that are specific to individual tissues and brain regions via the gene, cell, tissue, organ, organ system pathway. That pathway links both food odors and social odors (i.e., pheromones) to the development of brain-directed behavior. It links food odors and pheromones to directly to alterations in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) and its downstream affects on vertebrate behavior, or via the downstream effects of juvenile hormone (JH) on invertebrate behavior.

“Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).” — also from Diamond, Binstock and Kohl (1996)

The epigenetic modifications are nutrient chemical-dependent and pheromone-controlled, which leads to another conclusion:  “Olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans.” If not for some very obvious politics in the science of human sexuality, more people would have been aware, since 1996, that epigenetics explains both homosexuality and heterosexuality. Indeed, it is ridiculous for researchers to attempt to use one model for homosexuality and another for heterosexuality. It is equally ridiculous to claim that one model is a theory unsupported by data.  Heterosexual orientation is nutrient chemical-dependent and pheromone-controlled in every species on the planet. How did an epigenetic explanation of homosexuality become someone’s “new” model that McCarthy thinks is a theory that “is not supported by any data.”? Is there a theory of heterosexuality that is supported by data, or is the model for the development of food preferences and development of sexual preferences from species of microbes to man supported equally well by the same data?

About James V. Kohl 1307 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society