Nasal sprays may open the door for new medications
By Caitlin Shure
Excerpt: The secret to the nose’s potential lies in the nerve fibers embedded in its tissue. The nasal cavity houses the endings of nerves that connect to the brain stem and olfactory bulb. Chemicals traveling through or alongside these fibers can bypass the intimidating blood brain barrier. Consisting of tight cellular junctions, this barrier prevents most molecules in the bloodstream from reaching the brain. The barrier keeps pathogens out; however, it also limits the types of medications used to treat brain disorders. Intranasal delivery thus opens the door to entire new classes of therapeutic molecules—or even therapeutic cells.
My comment: The ketone body ²-hydroxybutyrate (²OHB) acts as an endogenous inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). That fact supports a model in which ²OHB links diet to gene expression via chromatin modifications via metabolism to species-specific pheromones that epigenetically effect the physiology of reproduction. This is probably what happens with the production of the alcohol and ketone forms of different molecules linked to genetically predisposed differences in sexual orientation that are epigenetically-effected by olfactory/pheromonal input. For example, the metabolism of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and it sulfate DHEAS to its primary metabolites etiocholanolone and androsterone probably allow the most abundant steroid hormone found in humans to signal both reproductive fitness and sexual orientation to others via the androsterone:etiocholanolone ratio.
Margolese, M.S. (1970) Homosexuality: A new endocrine correlate. Hormones and Behavior, 1, 151‑155.
See also: Androsterone-etiocholanolone ratios in male homosexuals