Cytoplasmic genetic variation trumps nuclear genetic variation

News article: Genes outside nucleus have disproportionate effect Posted: 12 Oct 2013 06:30 AM PDT

Excerpt: “… the tiny proportion of a cell’s DNA that is located outside the cell nucleus has a disproportionately large effect on a cell’s metabolism. The work, with the model plant Arabidopsis, may have implications for future treatments for inherited diseases in humans.”

Journal article: Cytoplasmic genetic variation and extensive cytonuclear interactions influence natural variation in the metabolome

Conclusion: “Natural genetic variation in the organellar genomes while frequently ignored will have to be kept at the front of future experimental approaches designed to understand the evolution and genetic architecture of organismal phenotypes.”

My comment: Transposable elements link what is known about epistasis in plants to nutrient-dependent receptor mediated epigenetic effects of odors on the microRNA/messenger RNA balance and adaptive evolution via the metabolism of nutrients to the species-specific pheromones that control the physiology of reproduction in species from microbes to man. What is known about plants was exemplified 6 years ago in flies.

See, for example: Intergenomic Epistasis for Fitness: Within-Population Interactions Between Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Genes in Drosophila melanogaster

People should soon begin to understand what it means to model environmental determinants of sex differences in flies, and in species from microbes to man. My model, for example, is based on what is known about receptor-mediated intercellular signaling, intermolecular interactions, and intranuclear restructuring in the plant genome. That means the molecular mechanisms are conserved.

It is no surprise to learn about this conservation in plants 6 years after it was reported in Drosophila! Indeed, if the molecular mechanisms were not conserved there would be no direct link from plant life to animal life on this planet sans mutation-initiated natural selection. Because no experimental evidence suggests that mutation-initiated natural selection occurs, others probably should have realized that plant and animal life is nutrient-dependent, and that the nutrients metabolize to chemical signals in plants that are called pheromones in animals. But in all species, nutrient chemicals and other chemical signals control reproduction as evidenced across a continuum of cause and effect.

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society