Creation vs Evolution? Pre-existing genetic variation, not random mutation

Article link:

Stickleback genomes reveal path of evolution

“…evolution is accelerated by the use of pre-existing genetic variation, instead of waiting for new, random mutations to arise…”

Full text is free: Jones, F. C. et al. Nature. (2012).

My Comment to the Nature site:

The honeybee is an invertebrate model organism that exemplifies the vertebrate molecular mechanisms detailed here. As noted by the authors, these molecular mechanisms are common to microbial species, which indicates the requirement for their ubiquitous and consistent use across life’s evolutionary continuum.

In the honeybee, what the queen eats determines her pheromone production and everything else about the colony, including the neuroanatomy of the worker bee’s brains. From this perspective on molecular biology, the honeybee model tells us that nutrient chemicals calibrate receptor-mediated intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression associated with the metabolism of nutrients to pheromones in all species from microbes to man. The pheromones standardize regulatory control of receptor-mediated intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression required for speciation. Reciprocal bottom-up / top-down relationships among chemicals associated with the “odors” of food are directly responsible for the formation of an ecological niche, which is maintained by the “social odors” / the pheromones that establish the social niche.

Changes in nutrient chemicals result in changes in the ecological niche that change the social niche by partial suppression of reproduction in individuals that don’t “smell” right because they are malnourished (or in bacterial colonies where reproduction is suppressed by pheromones and quorum sensing). The ability to acquire sufficient nutrient chemicals is genetically predisposed but also depends on conspecifics and stressors in the social niche (e.g., dominance in mammals) that might prevent access to changing supplies of existing nutrients. Individuals with genetic predispositions that allow them to adapt to changes associated with available nutrients will reproduce in microbial species like bacteria, or pheromonally signal their reproductive fitness in yeasts or in the multicellular organisms of all other species. These nutritional and social stressors are associated with immune system dysfunction in primates as they are with nutritional deficits or excess in other species.

In species from yeasts to primates, this model allows incorporation of social science theories of individual selection, kin selection, and group selection where nutrition and food odors are as essential to individual survival as they are to the production of pheromones and species survival. In this context, olfaction and odor receptors provide a clear evolutionary trail that can be followed from unicellular organisms to insects to humans.

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society