Creation of genes

Drosophila’s New Genes

An analysis of the transcriptomes of several fruit fly strains reveals dozens of possible de novo genes in each.

By Jef Akst | January 23, 2014

Excerpt 1: “There has been a long tradition in biology to think that a gene can only arise due to duplication and diversions from another gene, and this is therefore a completely new story.”

Excerpt 2: “It shows the power of generating from nothing, so to speak.”

My comment: “The de novo creation of genes has previously been reported to be the “holy grail” of evolutionary biology. If that is true, what’s reported here exemplifies the fact that the “holy grail” involves only the direct olfactory/pheromonal link from the epigenetic landscape to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from microbes to man.

See, for example, our 1996 Hormones and Behavior review article: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior (e.g., the section on molecular epigenetics where TB wrote): “Small intranuclear proteins also participate in generating alternative splicing techniques of pre-mRNA and, by this mechanism, contribute to sexual differentiation in at least two species, Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans…”

The alternative splicings are obviously nutrient-dependent and they lead to 1) de novo gene creation and 2) chromosomal rearrangements, which are exemplified in sex diffferences at the advent of sexual differentiation in the cell types of yeasts that sexually reproduce. The physiology of reproduction is controlled by the metabolism of nutrients to pheromones in species from microbes to man. That means de novo creation of genes probably occurs via conserved molecular mechanisms in all species (see: Organizational and activational effects of hormones on insect behavior).

Alternatively, mutation-driven evolution can be substituted for the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations that enable the de novo creation of genes and species divergence. However, it has become apparent that  “… natural selection is an evolutionary process initiated by mutation. It does not have any creative power…” (p. 196: Mutation-Driven Evolution). Therefore, theorists must explain how natural selection for mutations occurs so that their theory can be compared to a model of ecological variation, natural selection of food, and de novo gene creation.

The model incorporates what is required for the Creation of new genes that enable organismal complexity via ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction. What’s required is food and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction. See for example: Nutrient-dependent/pheromone-controlled adaptive evolution: a model

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society