Core duplicons: a driving force behind human evolution?

A Missing Genetic Link in Human Evolution

Mysterious episodes of genetic duplication in our great ape ancestors may have paved the way for human evolution

By Emily Singer and Quanta Magazine

Excerpt: While evidence that core duplicons are a driving force behind human evolution is growing, many questions remain. For example, it’s unclear what triggered the creation of these cores or how they spread.

My comment: Two things may be the driving force behind human evolution.

1) mutation initiated natural selection placed into the context of mutation-driven evolution

2) ecological variations placed into the context of adaptations and species diversification via the increased complexity of ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction.

All experimental evidence supports the role of ecological variations in adaptations. No experimental supports the role of mutations in the creation of core duplicons or their spread. Instead, the most recent report on de novo creation of genes in microbes clearly shows that the amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types are nutrient-dependent. Since the physiology of reproduction in microbes is pheromone controlled, it is easier to explain the creation and spread of core duplicons in the context of nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled amino acid substitutions. Attributing the amino acid substitutions to mutations that differentiate cell types leaves researchers with a theory about uncontrolled mutation-driven evolution that can be compared to a model of ecological variation and adaptations in species from microbes to man that is nutrient-dependent and pheromone-controlled.

The core duplicon appears to be an unstable genetic element, which provides a template for the stabilization of evolutionary changes.

Excerpt 2: ““It’s possible that we are the way we are largely because of this mechanism that generates dramatic episodes of chromosomal structural change.”  PZ Myers recently mentioned what may be a similar hypothesis. Myers wrote: Evolution was all due to chromosome rearrangements, which somehow are not mutations, and he also somehow ignored the existence of allelic differences between species. The link is to the late John A. Davison’s blog post in the context of PZ Myers accusation that Davison was, like me, a “crank.”

Excerpt 3: “While evidence that core duplicons are a driving force behind human evolution is growing, many questions remain. For example, it’s unclear what triggered the creation of these cores or how they spread.”

What seems to be missing here is anything that might otherwise link mutation-initiated natural selection to gene duplications, which suggests to me that the duplications are nutrient-dependent. If so, ecological variation and nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled duplicons are more likely to be the driving force behind human adapations, which leaves mutations to be the driving force behind unstable cell types and diseases or disorders. Of course, that fact turns people like PZ Myers in “cranks” who are so cranky as to insist that anyone who disagrees with them is a crank.

 

 

 

 

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society