Converting sunlight to fuel: O2 and CO2 Reactions

Efficient solar-to-fuels production from a hybrid microbial–water-splitting catalyst system

Abstract excerpt:  “…we report the development of a scalable, integrated bioelectrochemical system in which the bacterium Ralstonia eutropha is used to efficiently convert CO2, along with H2 and O2 produced from water splitting, into biomass and fusel alcohols.”

Reported as: New altered bacteria can convert sunlight into liquid fuel

News article excerpt 1) “This is just what an actual leaf does, except Nocera’s cheap little invention can do it 10 times faster.”

See also:  O2 and CO2 Reactions

Excerpt: 6 CO2 + 6 H2O —-> C6H12O6 + 6 O2

You will recognize that this is the back reaction of the combustion of a carbohydrate, which is highly favored. Plants carry out the forward reaction getting the energy from sunlight. You really cannot beat these energetics.

News article excerpt 2) “There have been 2.6 billion years of evolution, and Pam [Silver, from Harvard] and I working together a year and a half have already achieved the efficiency of photosynthesis.”

My comment: Apparently, cosmic rays perturb these energetics. However, theoretical physicists and evolutionary theorists seem to believe that perturbed energetics link thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation in bacteria to the evolution of increasing organismal complexity during 2.6 billion years of evolution.

See for comparison: Scientists discover organism that hasn’t evolved in more than 2 billion years

Summary:  “The greatest absence of evolution ever reported has been discovered by an international group of scientists: a type of deep-sea microorganism that appears not to have evolved over more than 2 billion years. But the researchers say that the organisms’ lack of evolution actually supports Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution.”

My comment: Lack of evolution across billions of years (2/2/15) is compared to evolution across billions of years (2/9/15). The claims from both representations of biologically-based cause and effect appear within the same week.

It seems likely that only futile attempts can be made to explain how ecological variation is epigenetically linked to ecological adaptations in species from microbes. Reports of evolution seem to occur outside the biophysically constrained chemistry of protein folding that links light-induced amino acid substitutions to cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all species via conserved molecular mechanisms.

An accurate representation of how biological energy from the sun links the microRNA/messenger RNA balance from RNA-Mediated Thermoregulation of Iron-Acquisition Genes in Shigella dysenteriae and Pathogenic Escherichia coli to nutrient-dependent metabolic networks and genetic networks in other species is not likely to make sense to anyone who does not realize how glucose is transported via red blood cells.

Red blood cells are iron-containing liquid fuel. The iron is found in hemoglobin. “…the so-called alpha chains of hemoglobin have identical sequences of amino acids in man and the chimpanzee, but they differ in a single amino acid (out of 141) in the gorilla.” — Dobzhansky (1973)  Nothing in Biology Makes Any Sense Except in the Light of Evolution

Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled reproduction in species from microbes to man, links light-induced amino acid substitutions in plants, algae, and sea slugs to cell type differentiation in all cells of all individuals of all species without the pseudoscientific nonsense about billions of years of evolution. It also eliminates the ridiculous theory that dinosaurs evolved into birds across 66 million years when coelacanths (fossil fish) did not change.

About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society