Biologically functional protein folding

Misfolded proteins clump together in a surprising place

Excerpt 1):Our findings have challenged the notion of the aggregation process as a passive consequence of accumulating misfolded proteins,” says Stowers Investigator Rong Li, Ph.D., who led the study. Using budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisae, a frequently used laboratory model in aging research, Stowers scientists experimentally used heat and other forms of stress to induce misfolded proteins to clump together.”

My comment: Saccharomyces cerevisae is one of the model organisms that links nutrient-dependent cell type differention to pheromone-controlled behavior via the RNA-mediated events we detailed in the context of molecular genetics in our 1996 review: From Fertilization to Adult Sexual Behavior “Parenthetically it is interesting to note even the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a gene-based equivalent of sexual orientation (i.e., a-factor and alpha-factor physiologies). These differences arise from different epigenetic modifications of an otherwise identical MAT locus (Runge and Zakian, 1996; Wu and Haber, 1995).”

Since then, other serious scientists have detailed how thermodynamic cycles of protein biosynthesis and degradation are epigenetically effected. The epigenetic landscape has been repeatedly linked to the physical landscape of DNA in the organized genomes of species from yeasts to primates via RNA-mediated amino acid substitutions that differentiate cell types. Evolutionary theorists, however, still claim that misfolded proteins link mutations to natural selection and the evolution of biodiversity.

Excerpt 2): “Proteins that fail to fold correctly cannot perform their biological functions and are potentially toxic to cells.”

My comment: It does not matter where the potentially toxic proteins are found, mutations are not beneficial. What these researchers now show is that 1) protein aggregation is regulated and 2) it requires active translation. Also, 3) the potentially toxic proteins are not typically transferred to progeny.

Excerpt 3): Li and her colleagues also determined that the association of aggregates with mitochondria gradually declines in the mother budding yeast cells with advanced replicative age, likely contributing to their diminished ability to rejuvenate through asymmetric cell division.

My comment: This links the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled misfolded proteins to reproductive senescence, which extends across species to human female reproductive senescence via the conserved molecular mechanisms of epigenetically-effected cell type differentiation in species from microbes to man.


About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society