From my invited and rejected submission on nutritional epigenetics: Nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled ecological adaptations: from atoms to ecosystems. (The submission was rejected with another slap in the face to me because no one would review the submission.)
Excerpt: “The likelihood that eating lead- and manganese-contaminated leaves caused an ecological adaptation in moth larvae that led to a developmental change in morphology from fawn to peppered color in adults was dismissed when a replication attempt failed. Therefore, the displacement of the moths was attributed to predation more than 80 years ago. See for review . At that time, virtually nothing was known about nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled biophysical constraints on the biochemistry of invertebrate morphology and behavior. Since then, others have leaned that morphology includes nutrient-dependent ecologically adapted pigmentation in insects ; in birds [42-43], and in humans .”
My comment: We now see that microRNAs are the most likely source of “Interspecies communication between plant and mouse gut host cells through edible plant derived exosome-like nanoparticles” Reported as: Amazing Food Science Discovery: Edible Plants ‘Talk’ To Animal Cells, Promote Healing
Excerpt: “With the recent discovery that non-coding microRNA’s in food are capable of directly altering gene expression within human physiology, this new study further concretizes the notion that the age old aphorism ‘you are what you eat’ is now consistent with cutting edge molecular biology.”
My comment: That biological fact links the epigenetic landscape of the moths — via contaminated plant leaves — to microRNA-induced changes in cell type differentiation and de novo creation of olfactory receptor genes. The olfactory receptor genes are linked to nutrient uptake and to the physiology of reproduction via the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones.
The extension from nutrient uptake to the pheromone-controlled physiology of reproduction in moths becomes clearer in mice. A nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution links the production of pheromones in mice to morphological and behavioral phenotypes associated with differences in teeth, sweat, hair, and mammary tissue. These changes are the result of the same nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution in humans and the changes have been exemplified in a human population that supposedly arose during the past ~30K years in what is now central China.
In his book “A Troublesome Inheritance,” Nicholas Wade repeatedly places the effect of the human nutrient-dependent amino acid substitution in the context of mutations and natural selection, which may make evolutionary theorists jump for joy. They typically like to read about things that appear to support their pseudoscientific nonsense. That’s why the peppered moth story is a favorite example of what they think is mutation-initiated natural selection. Theorists never think in terms of conserved molecular mechanisms that link the nutrient-dependent pheromone-controlled cell type differentiation of moths to mice and to other mammals via the epigenetic effects of ingested microRNAs on amino acid substitutions associated with food odors and with the metabolism of nutrients to species-specific pheromones in species from microbes to man.
Evolutionary theorists can only think in terms of mutations, natural selection, and biodiversity. They would not recognize a nutrient-dependent ecological adaptation if it slapped them in the face, which is metaphorically what just happened with publication of: “Interspecies communication between plant and mouse gut host cells through edible plant derived exosome-like nanoparticles.”
Nicholas Wade can now try to explain why he misrepresented the changes in the human population. They are not caused by mutations linked to racial differences and should be correctly represented as ecological adaptations that occur in all cell types of all individuals of all species via conserved molecular mechanisms. Trying to diffuse issues of racial differences while continuing to include any aspect of the pseudoscientific nonsense associated with neo-Darwinism, puts Wade in an awkward position. He’s stuck with theory at a time when biological facts clearly detail how ecological variation leads to ecological adaptations in microbes and all the races of man.