Adaptive evolution or not: cone receptors in the eye vs odor receptors


Vision Research Links Color Blindness To Eye Cells, Not Brain  September 20, 2012

Excerpt: ‘The problem, they determined, must be in the first stage of sight. This is how they refocused on the cone receptor cells in the eye itself.”

My comment: If the problematic receptors were involved in olfactory acuity and specificity, they could be linked directly from sensory input to hormone-secreting tissue in the hypothalamus (see below) of the mammalian brain. That’s what I did with olfactory/pheromonal input, which epigenetically alters intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression. The alterations in gene expression include duplications that enable de novo olfactory receptor genes.

The epigenetic alterations in olfactory receptor genes are responsible for adaptive evolution in species from microbes to man. Thus, it is ridiculous to claim that we have evolved to become primarily visual creatures. That, as we can “see” in the results of the study reported above, is a misrepresentation of facts.

Unfortunately, that misrepresentation is commonly accepted among philosophers, theorists, et. al., who have little understanding of the basic principles of biology and levels of biological organization that link sensory input directly to hormones and behavior in species with an adaptively evolved brain.

Light on the Brain September 20, 2012 By Sabrina Richards

Excerpt: “…the hypothalamus is one of the oldest parts of the vertebrate brain… “It’s very possible that this is one of the oldest functions”—one that evolved in “non-visual organisms” that had no eyes but still needed to sense light.”

Olfactory/pheromonal input acts on intracellular signaling and stochastic gene expression to alter production of de novo odor receptors that transmit signals to the hypothalamus. This is how food odors and pheromones epigenetically effect the hormones that affect vertebrate behavior.  The effect on hormones and their affect on behavior is  due to adaptively evolved ecological, social, neurogenic, and socio-cognitive niche construction.

Ingestive behavior and social behavior are odor receptor-mediated in all species (not just those that are sensitive to light) as would be expected due to the common molecular biology of all species. There is no biologically based explanation of how photo-receptor driven behavior could evolve via the effects of light on the hypothalamus without the epigenetic effects of nutrient chemicals and pheromones. Microbes must eat and reproduce along an epigenetic continuum before a multicellular species can evolve a brain with a hypothalamus that senses light.



About James V. Kohl 1308 Articles
James Vaughn Kohl was the first to accurately conceptualize human pheromones, and began presenting his findings to the scientific community in 1992. He continues to present to, and publish for, diverse scientific and lay audiences, while constantly monitoring the scientific presses for new information that is relevant to the development of his initial and ongoing conceptualization of human pheromones. Recently, Kohl integrated scientific evidence that pinpoints the evolved neurophysiological mechanism that links olfactory/pheromonal input to genes in hormone-secreting cells of tissue in a specific area of the brain that is primarily involved in the sensory integration of olfactory and visual input, and in the development of human sexual preferences. His award-winning 2007 article/book chapter on multisensory integration: The Mind’s Eyes: Human pheromones, neuroscience, and male sexual preferences followed an award winning 2001 publication: Human pheromones: integrating neuroendocrinology and ethology, which was coauthored by disinguished researchers from Vienna. Rarely do researchers win awards in multiple disciplines, but Kohl’s 2001 award was for neuroscience, and his 2007 “Reiss Theory” award was for social science. Kohl has worked as a medical laboratory scientist since 1974, and he has devoted more than twenty-five years to researching the relationship between the sense of smell and the development of human sexual preferences. Unlike many researchers who work with non-human subjects, medical laboratory scientists use the latest technology from many scientific disciplines to perform a variety of specialized diagnostic medical testing on people. James V. Kohl is certified with: * American Society for Clinical Pathology * American Medical Technologists James V. Kohl is a member of: * Society for Neuroscience * Society for Behavioral Neuroendocrinology * Association for Chemoreception Sciences * Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality * International Society for Human Ethology * American Society for Clinical Laboratory Science * Mensa, the international high IQ society